"Do you love me?"
Translation:Bạn có yêu tôi không?
Your suggested answer sounds like, "Must you love me/yourself?". If you put "có phải" after the subject, it acts as an auxiliary verb "phải" ("must") with interrogative particle "có". When you want to use it as a question marker word meaning "Is it that...", it should be at the beginning of the sentence: "Có phải bạn yêu minh không?".
Why is có and không in the sentence? Shouldn't it just be," Bạn yêu tôi?