"How was she killed?"
Translation:Sut caeth hi ei lladd?
This is explained in the notes for the section 'The news'.
''She was killed' is a passive pattern - she didn't do the killing, it was done to her. Welsh has no true passive verb form, so one of the ways around this is to express it as the equivalent of 'She had/got her killing', or whatever:
- Caeth hi ei lladd - She was killed
- Caeth hi ei thalu - She was paid
- Caeth Siân ei harestio gan yr heddlu - Siân was arrested by the police
- Ces i fy nal. - I was caught
- Cawsoch chi'ch dysgu daeareg yn y brifysgol - You were taught geology at university
(Note that in all of those examples, the form of cael starting the sentence is often soft mutated in the colloquial language.)
Wow, does that last sentence really work like that?
I thought English was pretty rare in being able to passivise the indirect object ("I was read a story" etc.).
This is a tricky one.
Strictly speaking following the rules for mutations etc, the statement of the past of cael should begin with 'c-'
However for whatever reason in spoken Welsh this is now 'g-' in the South and parts of the North and 'mi g-' in other parts of the North.
The standard learners course uses 'g'.
There are also a number alternative forms of the 3rd person single and all the plurals.
The 'c' form is rarely a spoken form.
So it is complicated creating sentences with all these possibilities and sometimes we've left out the 'c' forms in error. Please flag them whenever you come across their lack and we'll try to add them soon.