Is "asztalon" also used figuratively? Like: "the issue is on the table" (in a negotiation)?
Yes, you can say that.
You can also use "napirenden" - on/in the schedule/agenda.
Or "terítéken van" - which, I think, comes from hunting lingo, where, at the end of the hunt, they lay out the prey in a display.
This sentence is often used on English Courses in Brazil. Who would've thought that the english Hungarian Course would use the same thing on me haha :)