Gospodarz in Polish means host. It apparently comes from Proto-Slavic * gospodь meaning 'lord, master'. In Old Polish you can find a word gospodzin, meaning Lord, Sir (you can find it in Bogurodzica). With time it came to mean "host (master of the house), head of the family". The suffix -arz indicates the person performing an action. The word for economy itself comes from the word gospodarstwo (household).
Also the Proto-Slavic * gospodь is a compound itself (from gostъ-pod-ъ) with roots in Proto-Indo-European, so the Polish word gość and Russian гость (both meaning guest) also have the same root.
Probably yes. The word Gospodarka is linked with:
- gospodarz - (a) host, (b) farmer that has his own gospodarstwo (farm) (c) owner of hotel/hostel etc
- gospodyni - feminine gospodarz
- gospodarstwo - (a) farm (b) household
- gospoda - inn, tavern
- gospodarzyć - to farm
- gospodarować - to administrate an economy, to manage; to farm
- gospodarny - thrifty, economical
- niegospodarny - wasteful, uneconomical
Etymologically, yes. They are both derived from the same Slavic root. In the 15th century, a 'gospodarz' was the 'head of the household'. The word gospodarstwo (household, farm) is derived from that. I believe that gospodarka ("household" of a country) was in turn derived from gospodarstwo, but I'm not 100% sure about that.
Actually Wiktionary states it clearly :)
If you check "ekonomia", you see: "Note the false friendship: this word refers exclusively to the science of economics. The word for economy is gospodarka."
Okay, I see now that "gospodarka" is the term for "economy" in the most popular definition we use in English (referring to collective wealth, resources of a country), but what exactly is meant by the "science" of economics vs. the wealth and resources of a nation relating to the production of goods and services. When in Polish would you use "ekonomia" instead of "gospodarka?"
Well, I will talk about "gospodarka" of Poland/Italy/East Timor, but about "ekonomia" in a more abstract sense, more theoretical one. I don't really have any knowledge on that, but I believe it's rather a question to a dictionary or Wikipedia :)