is it "cymraeg" or "gymraeg" ?
Cymraeg - 'Welsh (language)' as a noun, 'Welsh-language' or 'Welsh-speaking' as an adjective
Cymreig - 'Welsh' generally, as an adjective
The initial C- turns to G- through soft mutation, something which is explained in the course.
- papur newyddion Cymraeg - a Welsh-language newspaper
- siop Gymreig - a Welsh shop
- nofel Gymraeg - a Welsh(-language) novel
- Dw i'n hoffi dysgu Cymraeg - I like learning Welsh
That gets more confusing! Surely the first 3 examples are all adjectives. Why should a novel be G and a newspaper C? Then is it aeg or eig ?
They are all indeed all adjectives. Except "Papur newyddion" is masculine therefore it is not followed by a soft mutation on adjectives, whereas "Nofel" is feminine and so it does cause a soft mutation on adjectives. "Cymraeg" would be used to describe a novel in the Welsh language whereas "Cymreig" would simply refer to any novel from Wales.
There are a handful of consonant sounds at the beginning of a word that can change the sound they make based on the last letter that came before them. This process is called Mutation and there are three kinds of Mutation in Welsh.