How do we derive this accusative (if it even is accusative)? What is the rule/pattern?
The "i" is the palatalisation of the "w" - that means the consonant before it is softened. I write in my grammar tables that it is in fact a
word ending in "-wj"
except that the "j" is not pronounced. But that makes it a noun which is declined the same way as "gość" (cj), "uczeń" (nj) and "przyjaciel" (łj).
It is accusative. A turtle is an animal, so, it's animated. All animated words in accusative get an 'a' at the end. But don't know where this 'i' comes from
Yes, as far as I know all masculine humans and animals get an "a" as accusative ending. Plus pomidor (tomato) which gets the "a" although inanimated - however at least, this is only potoczne (unformal).
potoczne :) Well... in theory yes, but to me the option to use "pomidor" as the Accusative form is just unnatural. I'm not sure if I've ever heard anyone say that (although I know that for at least one of the moderators it is natural).
A lot of fruits and vegetables are treated as animate, however illogical that is. That's just how most people speak. I believe that not doing it will soon begin to be treated as dated, if not archaic.
But pomidor stays the only one with an a-accusative, doesn't it? For the rest of masculine fruit and vegetables it is clear that they have an a-ending genitive.
Let's see... I can imagine hearing "Mam buta", but that would be probably considered wrong, "Mam cukierka" is perfectly natural to me, "mieć nosa" is used idiomatically (to have a nose for something?), but not for literal having a nose, "Mam pomidora" is definitely natural, ząb - as with but, I think. The others are definitely inanimate.
Unless you treat "gram" and "litr" to mean some drug and vodka, then you can hear it as "mam grama" and "mam litra", but that's colloquial anyway.
Another area where words are often treated as animate is technology, although that's not as common as fruits and vegatables. A lot of people would say "Mam laptopa", "Mam smartfona", "Mam iPhone'a", but especially with laptop that can be also treated as inanimate. On the other hand, no one will ever say "Mam komputera" or "Mam telefona".
I'm not sure what you mean...
(Nie) mam banana/pomidora/selera/pora/buraka/ziemniaka etc. - they all have Accusative and Genitive identical, because they are treated as animate. Although the logic would suggest that they are not, and the Accusative should be identical to Nominative.
Okay, I mistook this ... It is just that I made a list of masculine vocabular that are inanimate but have an a-ending genitive. Apart from the vegetable-fruit thing, am I correct when saying that they do not have an accusative which forms identically to the genitive? This is at least what tells me Aztekium for the following words:
but, cukierek, czerwiec, czwartek, dzień, gram, grudzień, kamień, kapelusz, kąt, klucz, kolec, komputer, korytarz, kościół, kosz, księżyc, kubek, kwiecień, lipiec, listopad, litr, maj, marzec, metr, miesiąc, nos, nóż, ołówek, parasol, pażdziernik, piątek, płaszcz, pomidor, poniedziałek, ser, sierpień, styczeń, świat, szpital, talerz, widelec, wrzesień, wszechświat, wtorek, ząb, zegar/ zegarek
There are some rules to this which are each time more or less rigid:
• months - apart from February [luty] - and the word „month“
• days of the week apart from the feminines środa, sobota and niedziela
• body parts
• physical units
• (some astronomical terms)
• almost all masculines ending on „-ik“, „-ek“
Some of the words given are not classified yet, although I have a suspicion for example that machines (zegar, komputer) are kind of a category as well and words beginning with "k" seem to be quite delicate as well.