ent- is a prefix implying something like taking something apart or away.
Schuld is guilt.
So entschuldigen is a verb meaning to take the guilt away from someone: to forgive or pardon them.
And Entschuldigung is a noun derived from that verb: the act of forgiving or pardoning someone.
As an expression, Entschuldigung! is short for something like Ich bitte Sie um Entschuldigung! (I ask you for forgiveness; I beg your pardon).
Ent- = and- in answer, a prefix that has many different uses.
Schuld = shild; guilt, fault, blame.
-ig = -y, an adjective ending that shows the condition of something, like 'watery' (water) or 'sorry' (sore) etc.
-ung = -ing, creates abstract nouns from verbs.
Ultimately the word would be equivalent to English: ANSHILDYING, meaning something equivalent to 'guiltiness' or 'my fault.'
Entschuldigung literally means "forgiveness" or "pardon"; it's short for *Ich bitte um Entschuldigung" "I ask [you] for forgiveness" or more idiomatically "I beg your pardon".
You can use it when you did something wrong, such as stepping on someone's foot. Or even if the "wrong thing" is just a cultural matter, such as interrupting someone -- "Excuse me, could you please tell me how to get to the post office?" Entschuldigung, könnten Sie mir bitte sagen, wie ich zur Post komme?. So it can also be a polite way to catch someone's attention.
So this is more or less "Excuse me" or "Pardon me".
Es tut mir leid, on the other hand, is "I'm sorry".
You can use it when you did something wrong, but also, for example, to express sympathy and commiseration. For example, if your friend tells you that their pet hamster died, you might say, Oh, das tut mir aber leid "Oh, I'm sorry (about that)" -- even though it's not a mistake that you made but it's a situation where you want to share your friend's sorrow so you say that you are sorry as well.
You wouldn't use it to interrupt someone or to begin a question.
And finally, Entschuldigung just asks for forgiveness but does not admit any fault or say that you feel bad about what you did, while Es tut mir leid says that you feel sorry. So a German child that did something wrong (say, took away their brother's toy) and is told to apologise might have a cleaner conscience with their mumbled 'Tschulligung than an English child that says "Sorry" when it isn't actually sorry about what they did.
Initially I learned that you typically always say "Es tut mir leid" in the same way you'd say "sorry" in English, and that Entschuldigung means "Excuse me." Having since learned the literal meaning of each part of the word Entschuldigung, it makes more sense. So now I'm wondering if it is commonly used to mean "excuse me," as in "you're in my way, please move" or when you make an impolite sound?
I lived with a German girl who would always say "sorry" instead, is that a colloquialism? Or is it pretty widely used by Germans?
In my experience, sorry is pretty common in casual conversation in German. But I wouldn't use with someone with whom I'm not on a du basis (duzen) or in formal professional settings (i.e. "we apologize for the delay" vs. the less formal/professional "sorry about the delay").
Actually, I would only use es tut mir leid for things that I'm really truly actually sorry for (we anglophones tend to throw the word around with much less concern about how genuine the apology is than they do in Germany, IMO). So only when you'd say a full "I'm sorry" instead of simply sorry ("I'm sorry to hear that", "I'm sorry about/that...", etc.) Entschuldigung is a more flexible apology, sort of "coming through", "sorry I accidentally bumped into you", etc. Verzeihung is another one that you hear sometimes.
Another common option is to use leider instead of apologizing: Leider schaffe ich das heute nicht (unfortunately).
If you try to jump to the next level in "Phrases", you'll get bomarded with the same task (Sorry - Entschuldigung) 5 or 6 times in a row. Duolingo, please fix. P.S. I know that a lot of people already want it but I really feel like 4th and 5th levels of a skill should be much more difficult
they're designed to be like that to teach you. you can't learn a word without having it repated multiple times in different sentences. if you feel like you have learnt it and you don't need practice then just move on to the next lessons nobody is asking you to get it level 5.
Pardon is a loan word in English but is not generally used to express sorrow or to excuse oneself. It is typically used when you want someone to repeat something, "Pardon?", i.e. "Can you repeat that?". To use it in place of "Excuse me" you would need to say "Pardon ME"--versus simply saying "Pardon"--but--as with "I beg your pardon" as mentioned in other comments, it is not really common usage nowadays. I can't remember the last time someone stopped me in the street with a "Pardon me, can you...?"
It's not the same as sorry in English. In English, you say sorry if you wrong someone, or if you just inconvenience them by bumping into them, for instance. Entschuldigung is more like,"oh my bad" and doesn't carry the same force as "es tut mir leíd" which is used if you have morally wronged someone.
Ent denotes removal (Decke is a cover, Entdecken is to discover)
Schuld is guilt
ig is often the ending y in English (Schuldig is guilty)
ung forms feminine nouns from verbs. Here the verb is Entschuldigen to remove guilt, to forgive
I'd like removal of my guiltyness, please. I'd like forgiveness, please.
Quite possibly because in English, "I beg your pardon" is rarely used anymore in the sense of "please pardon me." In the USA, I've only ever heard it used in two ways. The first meaning "I didn't hear you, could you say that again?" and the second meaning... well pretty much the same thing except with extreme sarcasm. Sort of like "I heard what you said, but are you sure you want to have said it?" The second way is usually said by a parent to a child.
I'm on my fifth question in a strengthening exercise, and this is the fourth time I've had Entschuldigung...twice German to English, once type what you hear and once English to German (in that order!). I guess it shows the question choice is truly random...
I got it right each time ;o)
[Edit] Ok, now I've had is another 4 times - 2 with "no" in front, and 2 Sorry to German...these two straight after one another. This is in the same exercise!!
By itself, I'd say it's unusual.
You might use it as part of a longer phrase, e.g. Entschuldigung, das habe ich nicht verstanden. Könnten Sie das bitte wiederholen? "I'm sorry, I didn't understand that. Could you repeat that, please?".
But as a short phrase to signal incomprehension, Wie bitte? is probably the most common.
Yes, they're a bit different - in some situations you can use either, but es tut mir leid "I'm sorry" can also be used for things that aren't your fault, unlike Entschuldigung "Pardon; Forgive me".
For example, if you bump into someone, you could use either, but if someone tells you their cat just died, you can say "I'm sorry" but not "Forgive me"... unless, of course, it was you who killed the cat!
Yes and no.
There are multiple acceptable answers -- but you can only use one at a time.
So the exercise would be considered correct if you answered "Pardon".
It would also be considered correct if you answered "Sorry".
And also if you used "Excuse me".
But not if you wrote, "pardon, sorry, excuse me" -- because those are three phrases and the German doesn't say Entschuldigung, Entschuldigung, Entschuldigung but just has Entschuldigung once.
This is not just a word in isolation -- it's an entire utterance. (Hence the full stop at the end.)
So you have to translate the "sentence".
Entschuldigung! is a phrase used by German speakers to apologise for something.
One phrase used by English speakers to apologise for something is "Apologies!".
On the other hand, "Apology!" is not used as an expression of apology -- so it's not a good translation for Duo's "sentence".
I was going to say that I wouldn't use it in the evening, but die Muttersprachler at the German forum at WordReference agree with you:
Why is it capitalized?
Because it's a noun. All nouns are capitalised in German.
It literally means something like "forgiveness" or "pardon", but -- like English "pardon" -- it's often used by itself as a shorthand for something like ich bitte dich um Entschuldigung "I ask you for forgiveness / I beg your pardon".
Although both mean "Sorry!" they don't have the same flavor.
Es tut mir Leid. I'm sorry to hear that you are ill. It makes me sad.
Entschuldigung. I'm sorry that I stepped on your foot. I didn't mean it.
My intentions have nothing to do with your illness, so "Entschuldigung" doesn't work to show your sympathy.
Stepping on your foot might make you cry, but not me. You hear "Es tut mir Leid" in this situation, but as a formula rather than an expression of sympathy.
EITHER answer should be correct.
What kind of exercise did you have? Do you have a screenshot that you can share? Upload it to a website somewhere, please (e.g. imgur) and tell us the URL of the image.
If you came to this sentence discussion, then chances are that you either had a translation exercise (German to English) or a listening exercise (type what you hear).
If it was a translation exercise, then es tut mir leid is not a correct answer because that's not an English sentence.
If it was a listening exercise, then es tut mir leid is not a correct answer because that's not what the voice says.
Without seeing the exercise you had, I can't provide any more specific advice.
I think that Duo has enabled the interface for testing out of levels without first preparing comprehensive exercises suited to that purpose. Although we are warned "but we won't make it easy for you," they do make it easy, giving us ordinary exercises with a lot of repetition.
Also, there is no indication that this is being used as an interjection.
There was a full stop / period "." at the end, indicating that this is a complete utterance, not an isolated vocabulary word.
As an interjection, "Apologies!" is used in English but I haven't come across as "Apology!". Conversely, "Entschuldigung!" is common in German but I've never heard "Entschuldigungen!".
So translating the singular to the plural is an idiomatic decision, driven by how a given idea is expressed differently in the two languages, rather than by grammatical needs.
It's so long because it's a compound word, made up of smaller elements.
So, for the same reason that (say) "independent" is so long -- it's also four syllables, each of which has a meaning (-pend- was to hang, de- was down, so depend was literally to hang down; then -ent makes an adjective out of the verb and in- makes it opposite).
In German, you also have ent-Schuld-ig-ung which roughly translates into "removal of blame or guilt"; you're asking someone to pardon you, to free you from blame and guilt.