Apart from the Present Definite Tense, like 'ninasoma', there's also the Present Indefinite Tense, or Simple Present. This describes usual or permanent actions, or to state 'scientific' truths, that are not necessarily connected to the present time (not to be confused with the Habitual Tense, like 'husoma'). In the affirmative form the tense marker of the Present Indefinite is the infix -A- which is inserted between the affirmative subject prefix and the verb radical. Monosyllabic verbs lose the infinitive prefix KU- in the Present Indefinite, unlike in the Present Definite. SUBJECT PREFIX + A + VERB RADICAL. MODEL 1 : KUSOMA = to read NI-A-SOMA - nasoma I read U-A-SOMA - wasoma you read A-A-SOMA - asoma he / she reads TU-A-SOMA - twasoma we read MU-A-SOMA - mwasoma you read WA-A-SOMA - wasoma they read MODEL 2 : KUJA = to come NI-A-JA - naja I come U-A-JA - waja you come A-A-JA - aja he / she comes TU-A-JA - twaja we come MU-A-JA - mwaja you come WA-A-JA - waja they come. Examples: Mama apika kila siku Mother cooks everyday; Ng'ombe wala majani Cows eat grass. The Present Indefinite Tense has no specific negative conjugation : we use the negative form of the Present Definite.
Thank you - this idea is difficult to get my head around - how is 'mother cooks every day' not habitual? Please could you give a couple more examples to explain the distinction between the use of Present Indefinite vs Habitual or is it the case that in different swahili-speaking regions one takes preference over the other?