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https://www.duolingo.com/InuzukaShino

Kim? / Czym?

InuzukaShino
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I am not sure, when I should use "kim" or "czym"?

I saw this video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bM-Uzgy225A

The first example sentences are:

  • On jest dobrym bratem.
  • On jest polskim muzykiem.

If I understood her right, she said, that the former sentence belongs to "czym" and the latter to "kim".

But why? Where is the difference between "Kim jest?" and "Czym jest?" How do I have to ask in Polish to get these example sentences as an answer and why?

1 year ago

10 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Okcydent
Okcydent
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You should use „kim jest” when talking about or to people. But even when you address human with „czym” you will be understood. The meaning will be nearly identical to „kim”. There is however one quirk. A person may feel disrespected because you talk to him/her as if he was a thing. That's right „czym” is the only valid option when talking about things. And another one: „czym jest” is used when talking about roles, so „czym jesteś” is not unheard of. In fact „czym jesteś” is a common (informal !!) question meaning: „with what type of vehicle have you arrived here” and by extension: „jesteś rowerem?” - „have you come here by a bike?”. If you ask „kim jesteś” you may expect that your interlocutor will introduce himself.

The problematic part is what to do with animals. They certainly are not humans so not „kim” but they aren't inanimate things either. The status quo is: a) try to use some other constructions b) most people would tend to use „czym jest pies” c) people with strong emotions toward dogs (we call the often „psiarze”, cats are „adored” by „kociarze”) will humanize their pets and use „kim”.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/InuzukaShino
InuzukaShino
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Thank you for your brief explanations. But in the examples, why she said, that "on jest dobrym bratem." belongs to "czym" while "on jest polskim muzykiem." belongs to "kim"? Both are about "on" and his attributes, so where is the difference? As I´ve seen the video first, I thought, it has to do with "dobrYM" (czym) and "polkIM" (kim), but this seems to be not the case - or did I understand her wrong?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Okcydent
Okcydent
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I watched first 2 minutes of the movie and Anna clearly states that both of the sentence you written go with „kim?”. This is coincide with what I wrote earlier: in general: kim - humans, czym - things

For czym she gives this example:
„Ferrari jest drogim samochodem”.

I would also provide some mathematical examples like:

  • Każdy kwadrat jest prostokątem. Every square is a rectangle.
  • Każdy prostokąt jest czworokątem. Every rectangle is a quadrangle

BTW: She's using grammar terms that are not in use in schools in Poland. Because she is teaching foreigners she uses words like: subjekt (subject instead of „podmiot”), maskulinum (rodzaj męski), sentencja (zdanie). Most of Polish grammar vocabulary is adapted but not copied 1:1 from Latin. In Latin Nomen = Name = Imię so Pronomen = Zaimek. There are also some analogues to German like: verb=Zeitwort=Czasownik (Czas = Zeit), Dingwort = Rzeczownik (Ding=Rzecz).

Normally in Polish „sentencja” is used to describe some famous quotes, especially from Latin.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/InuzukaShino
InuzukaShino
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Thanks again for your explanations. I tried to find, where she says it in the first two minutes and couldn´t hear it - and I thought, I´ve understood nearly all of what she said.

From what I hear, she says "Ale zobaczcie, ta końcówka jest pytaniu!" when she talks about the first sentence and points to "czym" and underlines "ym", and "Tak jak pytanie 'kim'." when she talks about the second sentence and pointing to "kIM". That confuses me. If I understand her right, the ferrari example was only to show that words ending with "g" would be conjugated in the same way as words, which ends with "k". Could you kindly provide me the time code, where she says, that both of the sentences go with "kim"? I really want to understand, what she says.

Regarding the grammar terms: Thank you, this will help a lot. Luckily she repeats often both versions (Polish and English), but I also have a book where the Polish terms are used.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Okcydent
Okcydent
Mod
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If you don't hear what she say, there are Polish and English dialogue lists. The kim/czym question appears (but not explicitly) around 14-15 minute.

Now I get what you mean. She is describing how one constructs instrumental. And because for masculine nouns the ending is -ym she underlines -ym ending in czym. She only wants to tell you that the endings of question words match the endings of nouns. This should help you to memorize it. She does not state that one uses „czym” when asking about „dobrym bratem”.

In Polish the deciding factor is the differentiation between human and inanimate thing or ideas. The difference between „kim?” and „czym?” reminds me of similar situation in German: (people) „Von wem redest du?”; (things) „Wovon redest du?”.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/InuzukaShino
InuzukaShino
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Regarding the endings: I first thought it, but I was not sure, if I missed an important information. Thanks for clearing this up.

I´ve read about the differenciation between czym and kim, but when I read a sentence, I often can´t geht, why there is kym or czym used. But your German examples help a lot (hopefully).

So if I take your examples from German:

  • "Kim się interesuje?" Is a question about whom one is interested in?

and

  • "Czym się interesuje?" Is a question about what things one is interested in?

Later I´ll try to arrange the questions at the end of this video into questions about things and questions about people.

Thank you again.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Okcydent
Okcydent
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If I'm not mistaken:

"Kim się interesuje? = Für wen interessiert er sich?

"Czym się interesuje? = Wofür interessiert er sich?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/InuzukaShino
InuzukaShino
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Yes, correct. :-)

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/LICA98
LICA98
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it's because after k you always use i, and after cz y

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo
TseDanylo
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  • Kto - z kim
  • Co - z czym
1 year ago