https://www.duolingo.com/PapaFrank2

When do i use: on, ona, jej, go, tamtego, tamten, tej,tego, jest, and to.

I having trouble on knowing when to use these words in sentences and am wondering if someone could help me know when to use these and if any of them can be used interchangeably. Thanks

1 year ago

7 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/kirezatav
kirezatav
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I struggle with the pronouns too (... as well as everything else), this may not be 100% but here's what I've gathered so far. It's an oversimplification and be sure to double-check everything just to be sure, but it might help a bit anyway.

On (he) and ona (she) are in the nominative and they are subject pronouns. This means when HE is doing the verb you say on, and when SHE is going the verb you say ona.

On je. Ona je. On pije. Ona pije.

Ten, ta, and to all mean "this", are in the nominative, and are used to modify nouns. Ten is used with masculine nouns, ta is used with feminine nouns, and to is used with neuter nouns.

Ten mężczyzna je. Ta kobieta pije. To zwierzę jest kotem.

Tamten, tamta, and tamto all mean "that", are in the nominative, and are used to modify nouns. Tamten is used with masculine nouns, tamta is used with feminine nouns, and tamto is used with neuter nouns.

Tamten mężczyzna je. Tamta kobieta pije. Tamto zwierzęta jest kotem.

Go (him) and (her) are in the accusative and they are direct object pronouns. This means when HE is affected by the verb you say go, and shen SHE is affected by the verb you say .

On zna. Ona go zna. Ja go widzę. Ja widzę.

Jego is the long/stressed form of go. I, uh, still have trouble knowing when to use it, but the general rule seems to be you use jego when you emphasise "him".

Tego, ten, , and to are in the accusative and all mean "this", they are used with direct objects of verbs. Tego is used with animate masculine nouns, ten is used with inanimate masculine nouns, is used with feminine nouns and to is used with neuter nouns.

To jest koń. Ja widzę tego konia. To jest chleb. Ja jem ten chleb. To jest woda. Ja piję wodę. To jest zwierzę. Ja znam to zwierzę.

Similarly, tamtego, tamten, tamtą, and tamto are in the accusative and all mean "that", they are used with direct objects of verbs. Tamtego is used with animate masculine nouns, tamten is used with inanimate masculine nouns, tamtą is used with feminine nouns, and tamto is used with neuter nouns.

To jest koń. Ja widzę tamtego konia. To jest chleb. Ja jem tamten chleb. To jest woda. Ja piję tamtą wodę. To jest zwierzę. Ja znam tamto zwierzę.

You'll have to double check with someone else, but I think tego and tamtego (and all their different forms) can also be used as pronouns, ie. not as adjectives modifying nouns.

Go (him) and jej (her) are in the genitive and they are used as direct object pronouns of negative verbs. This means when HE isn't affected by the verb you say go, and when SHE isn't affected by the verb you say jej.

On jej nie zna. Ona go nie zna. Ja go nie widzę. Ja jej nie widzę.

Tego and tej both mean "this" and are in the genitive. Tego is used for masculine and neuter nouns while tej is used for feminine nouns.

Ja widzę tego konia. Ja nie widzę tego konia. Ja piję tę wodę. Ja nie piję tej wody. Ja jem to jabłko. Ja nie jem tego jabłka.

Tamtego and tamtej both mean "that" and are in the genitive. Tamtego is used for masculine and neuter nouns while tamtej is used for feminine nouns.

Ja widzę tamtego konia. Ja nie widzę tamtego konia. Ja piję tamtą wodę. Ja nie piję tamtej wody. Ja jem tamto jabłko. Ja nie jem tamtego jabłka.

Jego (his) and jej (her) are possessives. Unlike mój/moja/moje/moi (etc.), they don't change depending on the grammatical number and gender of the thing owned; that is, when HE owns something you say jego, and when SHE owns something you say jej.

Jego pies. Jej pies. Jego woda. Jej woda. Ja znam jego pies. Ja piję jej wodę.

To jest is a sort of defining phrase that can be used to say "this is" or "it is". Unlike regular A = B constructions, this doesn't use the instrumental case. To can also be used between two nouns.

On jest mężczyzną, but To jest mężczyzna. Ona jest kobietą, but To jest kobieta. Pies jest zwierzęciem, but Pies to zwierzę. Tygrys jest kotem, but Tygrys to kot.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Trolland

Hi, just one hint from a native speaker:

"Jego" as a long form of "go" , sounds a little bit old fashioned to my ear, it is interchangeable with "go" but makes you sound like an aristocrate from 19th century :) So stick to "go" and use "Jego" only as "his" (as possessive)

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/kirezatav
kirezatav
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Dziękuję! That's great news because I always get confused when to use jego, at least I don't really have to worry about it anymore. :)

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/anetagh
anetagh
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That is correct, but not always :( Widzę go. Widzę ją i jego też. Jego też widzę. In the first sentence it's best to use "go". You can use "jego" for emphasis, but sounds a little bit pretentious. You cannot however use "go" in the second and third sentences. My advice - just do not use "go" at the beginning of a sentence.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/anetagh
anetagh
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Some people have a tendency to overuse words: jego, mnie, tobie (instead of go, mi, ci). They probably find it smarter or more polite. But it isn't. One should use jego, mnie and tobie when there is a certain emphasis. Let me give you examples:

Widziałaś ostatnio naszego sąsiada? Widziałam go. - Have you seen our neighbour lately? Yes, I've seen him).

Widziałaś naszych sąsiadów? Widziałam jego. - Have you seen our neighbours? I've seen him (but not her).

Czy dałem ci książkę? Nie dałeś mi. Jestem pewien, że dałem ją tobie. Nie, mnie jej nie dałeś. (Have I given you the book? No, you haven't. I am sure I have given it to you. No, you haven't given it to me.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Insidesounds

Hi! I admit that generally all that you wrote is correct. The comments are also good observations. The only mistake you made is with declension of the word "dog". "Ja znam jego psa" is the correct version. Congrats on learning this hard language!

Zuzanna

P.s. I am Polish :)

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/chartsman
chartsman
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Very good explanation but I have 2 corrections to your sentences:

Tamto zwierzęta jest kotem. => Tamto ZWIERZĘ jest kotem. Ja znam jego pies. => Ja znam jego PSA.

1 year ago
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