Are these words usually used together? By which I mean, are they likely to be seen in a sentence without the other half? Just trying to figure out the best way of remembering them all. I know I'll probably see the improper nouns like loro and tu and io, but I mean the "are" words. :)
It's more complete over here:
It was explained in the comment you replied to.
|I am||io sono|
|you are (singular)||tu sei|
|he/she/it is||lui/lei è|
|we are||noi siamo|
|you are (plural)||voi siete|
|they are||loro sono|
Well, let's look at English for a second:
"are" is used in a lot of places.
Now let's look at Italian:
The thing about "to be" is that in many languages, it's pretty irregular. You just have to learn irregular conjugations the old-fashioned way.
You'll find that typically feminine nouns end with "a", masculine with "o" (and there are exceptions). When changing a singular to a plural, that "a" or "o" will change. The "a" to an "e". The "o" to an "i". But again, you may find exceptions along the way. Such as man being "uomo" and men being "uomini". (But you notice it still ends with that "i".)
io sono = I am
tu sei = you are (s)
lui/lei è = he/she is
noi siamo = we are
voi siete = you are (pl)
loro sono = they are
As you can see, the conjugations are by each person. It's more detailed than just "sei=are". "Sei" only goes with "tu".
And you can tell the different uses of "sono" apart by whether other things are singular or plural.
Sono una donna = I am a woman.
Sono donne = They are women.
Hello and thank you for your contributions. I am an absolute beginner at Italian and would appreciate an explanation for this. Your conjugation of the verb 'to be' above seems totally accepted by all learners and experts here, BUT, I have always referred to Reverso for looking up verb conjugations. It says the following: io sono , tu sei , egli è , ella è , noi siamo , voi siete , essi sono , esse sono .
Four of these are different to what I have been reading. Can you help? Greetings from Australia.
How was it presented to you, and how exactly did you answer?
For example, if it wanted you to translate from English to Italian and it was multiple choice, were there two equally correct answers ("Sono donne" and "Loro sono donne") and you only chose one? The instructions on the multiple choice questions say to select all correct answers, not just pick one of them. In that case, it would have marked you wrong for failing to select one of the valid responses.
If it was dictation, you should type what you hear, not translate. So if the voice says "Loro sono donne", you should put "Loro sono donne" and not "They are women".
If it was text-to-text translation, maybe you made a typo that isn't in the database.
And of course, Duo is well known to glitch sometimes. Even if you were right, sometimes it hiccups for no apparent reason and marks you wrong. Plenty of people have complained (with screenshots to back them up) that their answers were perfectly correct, and yet Duo marked them wrong. Sometimes, it will even supply as the correct answer exactly what they had typed.
Whenever you encounter a glitch, report it (click the flag icon) and explain the problem.
We're just fellow learners like you. And even if a course contributor or site dev were in here, you've given us absolutely nothing to go on. We need to know exactly how the question was presented to you and exactly how you answered.
If it was free-writing, are you sure you didn't have a typo or extra space somewhere?
If it was multiple-choice, did you select all of the valid translations and not just one of them?
If it was word bank selection, did you tap or drag the tiles? There's a bug that marks correct answers wrong if you drag the tiles.
Actually, andare is a special kind of verb that uses 'essere' as the auxiliary verb instead of 'avere' when using the past participle to express the past tense. As in the example above, I have gone, you have gone, he has gone. There are just a handful of verbs that follow this format, and usually they are verbs of movement, where you are physically moving yourself from one place to another. Verbs such as to go, to come, to return, to enter, to go up, to go down, etc. So in this particular example, you would have to say, 'Io sono andato - tu sei andato, lui è andato. I realize that this wasn't even a question, so if this seems impossibly complicated right now, please don't stress over it. It's actually quite easy, and will eventually even make sense to the point that something either 'sounds' right or not.
Why what changes? The verb? Many languages conjugate the verb to reflect who the subject is. English mostly lost this a while ago, although we still have verbs like "to be" with a little more conjugation:
And other verbs end in -s or -es for the he/she/it form.
In Italian, this form of "to be" (essere) looks like this in the present tense:
Does it? I tried and it translated "donna" with woman, female, queen, maid and girlfriend; and some of them are blatantly wrong. Google translate is still far from being a good translator. For "donne" it gave me women, womenfolk and womankind, and for "lady" signora, dama and gentildonna.