"I do not want to swim in the sea in winter."
泳ぎたい (およぎたい) means "(I) want to swim". When made into negative form, たい becomes たくない (plain form) or たくありません (more polite) 泳ぎたくない (およぎたくない）and 泳ぎたくありません (およぎたくありません) both mean "(I) do not want to swim" The subject is determined by context or indicated by particles. "I" applies in this specific example.
So, if I understand correctly, without the たく in there, it would have translated as "I do not swim in the sea in the winter." I.e., a statement of fact rather than desire.
Yes, that's basically correct. However, the conjugation changes slightly. -たく is the negative form of the -たい conjugation that indicates desire.
ふゆに うみで およぎ ありません is NOT a properly conjugated sentence.
If you're talking about a factual statement involving the verb, there are various statements you could use depending on the politeness or formality required.
The subject (I, he, she, you, whatever) depends on context - I will use "I" below to match the sentence people are commenting on from Duolingo.
冬に海で泳ぎません。 ふゆに うみで およぎません。 I do not swim in the sea in winter. (semi-polite)
冬に海で泳がない。 ふゆに うみで およがない。 I do not swim in the sea in winter. (not polite, casual)
You can further change politeness using keigo variants:
冬に海でお泳ぎになりません。 ふゆに うみで お およぎ に なりません。 (You) don't swim in the sea in winter. (speaking about someone else, elevates their rank compared to you)
冬に海でお泳ぎしません。 ふゆに うみで お およぎ しません。 I do not swim in the sea in winter. (speaking about you, humbles yourself compared to the speaker.)
You should notice a number of fairly logical commonalities between these conjugations - Japanese is fairly regular and logical about how things are conjugated, but there are a number of irregular things, too.
Hope that helps.
In prior lessons, "in winter" would have been translated as 冬は, but in this example, 冬に is used. Prior examples typically have not accepted XXに as correct "in XX" translations. Ensuring this is made consistent would be helpful.
冬 can have a に or without. They are equivalent. は is used for stressing or makes a phrase the topic. So for vatiations: 冬・冬に・冬は・冬には
冬は (fuyu wa) was accepted for me. Just have to keep submitting error reports to get all the correct variations accepted.
Would swapping で and に be actually wrong or a change in emphasis? Ie に on the ocean and で on winter.
「冬に海で泳ぎたくないです」is indeed an acceptable way to write "I do not want to swim in the sea in winter." Please add it as a suggested correct answer if you haven't already.
It seems like textbooks and teaching defaults to -くありません because it is more formal, but everyday teineigo uses -くないです far more frequently. Using ありません sounds overly formal. (I confirmed this reply as being generally correct with my native speaker friend.)
My friend cautions me that 泳ぎたくないです still sounds fairly 'strong' and forceful, despite using です to soften the 泳ぎたくない.
Japanese verb conjugations change based on positive or negative use. This is an example of negative use conjugation.
公園へ行きたいです （こうえんへいきたいです）I want to go to the park 仕事へ行きたくないです （しごとへいきたくないです）I do not want to go to work.
Verb conjugations that express desire end in －たい -tai. When used in a negative fashion (don't want to), the －たい -tai turns into －たく -taku, and you add ない nai.
You see similar changes in ーい adjectives: 寒い samui - cold 寒くない samuku nai - not cold
The addition of です desu is a little more polite. 古いです furui desu - old (inanimate things) 古くないです furuku nai desu. - not old (inanimate things)
Hope that helps!
I switched the articles "de" and "ni" ... I thought "de" meant during so I associated that with "in the winter". But twas incorrect :) ... Would anyone be able to help translate why that's wrong, please?
Pardon my simplification - I hope this explains a little.
に is used for time context (at five pm) and other things (direction, others). で is used for positional context for action (I swam in/at the pool) or identifying means by which something happens (I went by car)
公園で散歩しました I walked in the park, I took a walk in the park. 午後5時に食べる I (will) eat at 5pm. 車でと京へ行きました I went to Tokyo by car. 大阪に行きたい I want to go to Osaka. (へ can also be used in this instance - there are differences implied in choosing one particle over the other)
I thought i could write fuyu without the ni. We see that for kyou and such things (though kyou is admittedly kyou wa, not kyou ni). For seasons, the ni is required?
I believe fuyu requires a particle.
★ You don’t usually need the particle に ( = ni) with the followings time words because they already function as an adverb.
今 = ima = now
今日 = kyou = today
今朝 = kesa = this morning
今晩 = konban = tonight
今週 = konshuu = this week
今月 = kongetsu = this month
今年 = kotoshi = this year
明日 = ashita = tomorrow
明後日 = asatte = the day after tomorrow
来週 = raishuu = next week
再来週 = saraishuu = in two weeks
昨日 = kinou = yesterday
昨夜 = sakuya = last night
昨晩 = sakuban= last night
一昨日 = ototoi = the day before yesterday
去年 = kyonen = last year
一昨年 = ototoshi = two years ago
毎日 = mainichi = everyday
毎朝 = maiasa = every morning
毎晩 = maiban = every night
この間 = kono aida = the other day
先日 = senjitsu = the other day
It might not be a complete list, but seasons are not included.
Both 冬 and 冬に are correct. に is optional not required. The list from Maggie-sensei is correct, they are required not to be followed by に (when に would mark the time of an action).
Do you have any more information about why it would be optional? It sounds wrong to my ear to not use a particle.
Is it possible to instead say ふゆのうみで ? In the same manner in which you might say 冬の山にのぼるのがあぶないです。
冬の山 (Winter mountain) sounds very poetic to me. Doesn't sound natural. "I do not want to swim in the winter sea."
たく is an adverb so it cannot follow では. Must be a noun equivalent before では.