Translation:Mr. John is a teacher.
No, these are two different statements, with two different functions, in both English and Japanese. (1) Eng: John is a teacher. --> We describe John's profession. He is one of many. (2) Eng: John is the teacher. --> Here we specify that John is the teacher of a particular class, or that he is the teacher (out of other professionals who are not teachers). (3) Jpn: ジョンさんは先生です。This would generally translate to either, "Mr. John is a teacher." (announcement of his profession) or "Mr. John is my teacher." (introduction) (4) Jpn: ジョンさんが先生です。This would translate to, "(No, that other person isn't the teacher.) Mr. John is the teacher. (in whatever context we are talking about teachers)
Actualy it would be rude to adress elder by name+san, you can use surname+san and even then san sounds informal. You would be better using profession/position instead of san- if teacher add "sensei" if its your boss add "shachoo". San is not Mr. - coleauges use "san" in casual conversation. You always use san except if its someone really close - friend or family. Thus "san" should usually be omited in translation.
Honorifics are generally applied throughout Japanese. They are terms of respect, politeness, and familiarity/relationship. There are a wide range of honorifics from casual to highly formal. さん (san) is the default. It will apply in most situations.
So while you probably won't say ジョンさん (John-san) if he is your teacher, it would be fine to refer to him like that if he is your friend. I think Duo is working off of base familiarity first.
It is also important to note that, so far, the format of [first name]さん has only been applied to borrowed names マリア (Maria) and ジョン. In earlier lessons, when a native Japanese name was used, it was [surname]さん.
Yes, because san doesn't necessarily translate to Mr/Miss/Mrs/Ms in English. It's more like a suffix that you add to someone's name to be polite. If you use it with a person's first name then you can just translate it in English as the person's name, if it's used with a surname then yes, a rough English equivalent is Mr/Miss/Mrs/Ms. There's no distinction between male and female when using san, but you should be able to tell by a person's first name. Less formal are chan and kun - chan is typically used for females and kun for males, although chan can also be used for males. The decider is usually what is easier to say/sounds better eg. Kenchan or Kenkun - the former sounds better and is easier to say than the latter.
I agree with you for the most part, but the decider is definitely not what is easier to say/sounds better. It depends heavily on your specific relationship with the person, what their personality is like, and what your personality is like.
Calling a guy Ken-chan can sound either very affectionate, very condescending, or very "good-natured ribbing between friends". Calling him Ken-kun can be very patronizing or very "normal because we go/went to the same high school".
Girls can also be referred to using -kun, but this is usually only done by old people or people referring to their subordinates.
The thing is though that John is clearly the person's first name so it sounds a little odd to call someone Mr/Ms "first name" or in this instance Mr John - if it was a surname it wouldn't be an issue. A good rule for translating to English is first name - don't translate san (chan, kun, sama), surname add Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms as appropriate - although it is not always clear which is the right one to use just from a surname.
Yea i hate that san is translated as meaning Mr, Ms or Mrs, it is not the same. We don't have anything like that in English. It's like in anime they translate chan to boy or girl, because it is used only for young people, but thats not what it means. It doesn't have an English meaning and just arbitrarily picking something is weird to me.
You don't typically call some one Mr. Firstname in English. Mr John feels extremely incorrect. You don't use Mr or Mrs when referring to friends or talking to classmates or co-workers, its entirely too formal for typical english conversation. In japan you refer to people using honorifics in english you don't. Period.
Learn individual honorifics based on the context they are used in, but don't try to translate them into English. It makes it confusing to figure out how they are supposed to be used, since they're not used the way those titles are used in English.
How do any kanji combinations get their final meaning... it's a bit rough, but 先 (saki as you put it) means "preceding" or "future" and 生 (nama) means "life", so 先生 can be interpreted to mean "one who has lived ahead of you", presumably meaning they know more than you and can therefore teach it to you.
But if you mean, why isn't 先生 read sakinama, aside from explaining the existence of on'yomi and kun'yomi (each kanji can have multiple readings which come from borrowed Chinese or native Japanese pronunciation), the answer is pretty much "because reasons" f(^_^; There is a general rule, that combinations of just kanji usually use on'yomi while kanji on their own or with hiragana uses kun'yomi, but there are also plenty of exceptions.
And sometimes kanji relates to or adds to the meaning of a word and sometimes it is unrelated. An example is the kanji for musuko (son) is made up of jibun (own or my own) and kokoro (heart), so it's not really directly related to the meaning but as a mother of 3 sons I think it's kinda sweet - and a nice way to remember the kanji too!
For those of you who don't know, さん doesn't really mean "Mr." or "Ms."
You can just add the endings to any name. By any name I mean first name, middle name, surname, etc. So, "ジョンさんは先生です" can either be translated as "Mr. John is a teacher" or "John is a teacher".
If you watch Anime, then you probably know about these endings. "Chan", "Kun", "San", etc. are added to names. It may depend on your relationship with the person. You may not use them sometimes.
You can just add the endings to any name. By any name I mean first name, middle name, surname, etc.
"John" is such a common English first name though, that people would assume it's someone's first name, regardless of what name ending you use.
You would have to explicitly say "no, my surname is John" which would be 名字【みょうじ】はジョンです
Yeah, definitely something weird going on there. I hope you hit the REPORT button in the bottom right because the course developers don't necessarily read these comments.
For some strange reason, it seems to have underlined the "eac" in "teacher" as the part that you got wrong though... maybe you inserted a zero-width space in there by accident?
You are correct, and it's not a mistake - "ha" is read "wa" in this case (watashi wa..., Jon wa...,). Japanese is for the most part read like its written but there are ocassionally small differences like this one. Also written "he" is to be read "e" when it stands alone. You'll get used to it real fast no worries : )
さん can be translated into English as Mr, Master, Mrs, Ms, or Miss. Technically there is no literal English equivalent - it is a Japanese suffix added to names - first or last, which shows politeness and respect. If it follows a first/christian name then you wouldn't translate it into English - you could but it's a little awkward. Even if you've just been introduced to someone you don't generally refer to them as Ms Jenny or Mr Brad - you would just refer to them by their first name. (I included "Master" here as in NZ Master is the title given to young boys eg. when they get mail from the Dr or from the bank etc it is addressed to "Master James Johnson" - I'm not sure what the age limit for this is - fyi the abbreviation for Master is Mr)
It serves to indicate that ジョンさん (i.e. the part of the sentence は follows) is the topic of the sentence (and as is often, but not always the case, also the subject).
To help people get their heads around the idea of topic, は is often (very roughly) translated to "as for ~", so this sentence breaks down like: "As for (=は) John (=ジョンさん), [he] is (=です) a teacher (=先生)."
In many languages professor means teacher (ie. there's no distinction made between teacher and professor - they are used interchangeably) but in English professor usually refers to a "teacher"/lecturer at University or a tertiary education level or a more specifically specialised "teacher". I'm guessing this is why it's not accepted. 学者(がくしゃ) is probably closer to professor.
That's right. If you're introducing Mr. John's (sic) profession, 先生 is very general but usually refers to a school teacher (including kindergarten through to high school) without any other qualifiers, such as 空手の先生 (karate no sensei). If you want to introduce him as a professor, you would say he is a 教授（きょうじゅ）
But it's not actually Mr. There is no direct English equivalent. san (and other suffixes like it - kun, chan, sama) are suffixes that are added to people's names (first or last) to show either politeness, respect, a person's level of hierarchy (sama - VERY respectful) or familiarity (chan, kun). There is nothing to tell us that John is a surname so it is logical to assume that it is this person's first or christian name. When attached to a christian name you wouldn't translate it in English - you would simply translate ジョンさん as John. If there was information that let us know that John was actually his surname - for instance if the sentence said ジャムズ じょんさん は 先生 です。then the English translation would be Mr James John is a teacher - then it would be appropriate to translate ~さん as Mr. Please see my comment directly above which basically says the same thing.
The は doesn't strictly speaking "mean" anything, but it serves to indicate that ジョンさん (i.e. the part of the sentence it follows) is the topic (and sometimes the subject) of the sentence.
To help people get their heads around this, it's often (very roughly) translated to "as for ..." So, breaking down this sentence, you get "As for John (ジョンさんは), [he] is (です) a teacher (先生)."
Well, you're not wrong exactly, but 先生 is used more as an honorific suffix for doctors (as well as teachers). It can also be used kind of like a pronoun, if the context makes it obvious that you are referring to a doctor.
"(Medical) doctor" is usually 医者 (いしゃ), or if you're being polite, お医者さん (おいしゃさん).
Isn't "san" a suffix you put after names when you address other people in Japanese?
Yes, that is correct. But it's also used when talking about a third person unless the third person is part of a group you belong to as well and the listener is not (e.g. when talking about someone from your company to a member of a different company), in which case you would use a humble form, although you're not referring to yourself.
It's because John is almost certainly a first name and hence in this instance, ～さん has no English equivalent. If the sentence read for example either John Smithさんは 先生 です。ＯＲ Ｓｍｉｔｈさんは 先生 です。Then it would be appropriate to translate ~さん with the relevant title. I've also explained this more extensively above in answer to similar queries.
Kind of, but 先生 is used more as an honorific suffix for doctors (as well as teachers). It can also be used kind of like a pronoun, if the context makes it obvious that you are referring to a doctor.
"(Medical) doctor" is usually 医者 (いしゃ), or if you're being polite, お医者さん (おいしゃさん).
John is spelt John, not Jonh. But also please read my response to the question directly below. Professor usually refers to a University/other Tertiary Education level "teacher" or lecturer - that would probably be closer to 学者. 先生 means teacher amongst other things and is not as specific as professor.
Speaking of honorifics, do you ever get the feeling that some rules of etiquette are either made up or otherwise unnecessary to the point where we were taught at an early age what is "polite" and what is "rude", only to find some of these rules ridiculous or unnecessary in retrospect? On a personal level, I do not find not being referred to as an honorific, but maybe that is because I was born in the English world, where honorifics are not necessarily mandatory, instead of the Japanese world, whose honorifics are mandatory. That said, we must use them there lest we be perceived discourteous, unless they know that we are foreigners (who do not understand Japanese), wherefor the gaffe may be forgiven. If I had lived in Japan, I could see finding honorifics mandatory; after all, with H-O-N-O-R in its spelling, honorifics always enhance politeness. However, it would not come as a surprise if I were to go on to eventually find that rule of etiquette in Japan a little "out there".
Yes, it can help nouns modify/describe other nouns and also make verbs into nouns eg. 歌うのが好き - I like singing, and in informal/casual speech can indicate a question instead of か eg. 明日 来るの - will you come tomorrow? I thought it best to focus on how の was used in this instance and not complicate matters by listing off multiple uses.
I agree listing off the other roles の can have would make things more confusing, but your answer makes it sound like there aren't any other uses for の.
I just wanted to avoid future confusion; when other functions of の are encountered, learners won't be penned into trying to think about it in terms of possession, even if they aren't aware of the details of those other functions right now.
So, uh, John is a first name... If they were truly a teacher, they would be Mr. (whatever their last name is) to whomever the students were unless they were on a first name basis with each other, which would just place John as "John". Mr. (first name) is pretty much only an American/British thing to the best of my knowledge, so why is it "Mr. John" as a teacher's name?