Translation:How much is that?
Ano, sono and kono require to be followed by a noun, while are, sore and kore completely replace the noun. So it's sono isu, but just sore.
こ- Is right next to you, そ- is close to the person you're speaking to, あ- is far away from both of you.
I think it should be "How much is that over there?" since it's "are", not "sore".
Technically, yes, although the 'over there' is generally omitted from most translations because it's implied; it would probably be most accurate to write "How much is that (over there)?".
I suspect this is also to avoid confusion when we start using the demonstrative pronouns for locations (ここ、そこ、あそこ、どこ, roughly translated to "this/that place", or "over here/there") and the demonstrative pronouns for directions (こちら、そちら、あちら、どちら, roughly translated to "this/that way").
Well, you could also be asking if "that (over there)" is "salted salmon roe" :P
But seriously, as a question word, I can't think of any examples where いくら isn't referring to the cost of something, unless it's いくらでも ("no matter how much") or いくらか ("however much"). If you want to ask how many things there are, usually you would use 何+the appropriate counter.
Could this also mean "Is that ikura?" as in, the salmon roe that you often see in sushi restaurants?
I do remember learning that ikura is actually written in katakana, as the word comes from the Russian word икра (ikra), so in written form perhaps it would be easier to tell. But just wanted to know if the sentence can be interpreted as such when listening.
That's a fantastic point! XD (I didn't know it came from Russian, that's really interesting)
You're exactly right; it is a possible interpretation. I'd wager that there is a different stress accent for いくら ("how much") and イクラ ("salmon roe"), but I'm not versed enough to comment on it.
So in some contexts, I have seen questions be written without the question mark (instead with the special dot 。 that ends Japanese declarative sentences) when they end with the particle 「か」. Would that be (in terms of French liaison terminology) mandatory, impossible, or optional?
Formal Japanese actually generally doesn't use question marks at all because of the fact that, as you pointed out, there's a question marker か which renders it unnecessary. They just end sentences with the 。regardless of whether it's a question or not.
The question mark (and the exclaimation mark for that matter) are both western imports that get used in casual, informal writing like memos or letters. You also see it a lot in manga, etc.
I did some further research and found that in general, いくら is used almost exclusively for prices, so it typically means "how much". On the other hand, いくつ is used to ask for the number of countable things, which in English is necessarily "how many".
I've seen いくつ used before for the age, いくら here about an amount of money, 何時 speaking of hours... What rule are there as to asking about a quantity ?
What is the difference between using "sono" "are" and "ano" to refer to "that"
Sono and ano both belong to the same set of demonstratives. They are adjectives, and must come attached to a noun, e.g. その机 (that desk). Ditto for kono and dono.
Are is a pronoun, and replaces the noun/noun phrase. For that reason, are--as well as the others in the set, kore, sore, and dore-- can be topics and subjects on their own. You can say あれは; you cannot do the same with あの. The latter always needs to be あの[insert noun here]は.
These are just two out of several series of ko-so-a-do demonstratives. The relationship indicated by that first syllable goes as follows:
Ko~: close to the speaker.
So~: away from speaker and close to listener.
A~: away from both speaker and listener.
Do~: interrogative/question word. E.g. どの机="which desk"
We don't differentiate between so~ and a~ in English, which is why they both just get translated as "that".
Why is "How much" at the end here, but "Where" is at the beginning in the other examples?
Because the topic/subject of a sentence always comes first, and this sentence is talking about あれ. I'm sure in another sentence you could say 「いくらがあれですか。」The grammar doesn't always translate well.
I said "How much for that?" and it marked me as wrong. Is the way i said it slang or something?
これ = this
ぞれ = that
あれ = that (over there)
Both words translate to "that", but あれ is used for more distant things.
これ is used for things that are close by. Specifically, something that is closer to the speaker, than it is to the listener. それ is used for objects that are pretty close to the listener, but further away from the speaker. あれ is used when the object is pretty far from both parties.
A: "Is this your pencil?" (これ)
B: "No, that is not my pencil?" (それ)
A: "What about that pencil over there?" (あれ)
B: "Oh! Yes, that one over there is mine!" (あれ)
It's different. あれ, and the slightly feminine あら, are onomatopoeic words used to indicate surprise, and are unrelated to the pronoun あれ, despite having identical pronunciation.
Being onomatopoeic, あれ and あら are more conducive to manipulation/personalization, with forms like あれれ, あれまあ, and あらら.