Translation:I can speak English and Japanese.
It is a little confusing, but basically because the verb はなせます is in the potential form (i.e. can speak), the particle you use to indicate the object (the thing you "can verb") changes to が instead of を. The reasons for this are not known to me, but it's just a rule you have to learn
That's correct to my knowledge. "Hanasemasu" (話せます) was taught to me as "present potential" tense, so it translates to "can speak" in English.
If you remember this way then it may be easier.
In the old Japanese language, the "potential form" and the "irrealis form" + れる／られる are the same. The latter is used to express the passive voice. The direct object becomes the subject of the "state" when the action is performed.
There needs to be a particle to mark what "英語と日本語" is (Is it the topic? Is it the subject? Is it the object?) cause that's how Japanese works. In this case, the correct particle is が which is the subject marker. In this sentence the languages are the object, so you would expect to use を but because the verb is in its potential form ("can speak") it acts differently, kind of like the passive voice in English ("languages are being spoken by me"). It's tricky, mostly you learn this kind of stuff best by listening to lots of the language so you become used to what sounds "right".
Kinda, though it is not necessarily true that a sentence with 行く will have only the direction particle; for example, you might want to specify both a destination and a time, in which case you could use the へ and に particles, respectively. And if the destination is the topic, you can skip the に bit altogether and instead use が to mark a subject that will be going there. Context matters a lot in Japanese conversation.
The verb はなす is being conjugated into the potential form which means "I can speak" instead of the present form, "I speak." Another user explained it to me better than I could here: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/22926693$comment_id=22931890
wo is used when the action occurs on the object directly. eg. ushi wo xxx ushi = cow if xxx is the verb, it means that the action will occur on the cow, as in, if the verb was 'to eat' it would be 'to eat the cow'. ga is the subject particle, like wa is used to introduce topic, ga tells the subject.
hope it helped
The term is direct object, otherwise you're quite correct. (It's also often simply called object; the addition of "direct" is to distinguish it from the (less common) indirect object, which is affected by the action but not directly acted upon -- the classical example is the recipient of a gift.)
In the sentence "Mary gave Peter a book", the subject (who gave?) is Mary, the direct object (what did Mary give?) is a book and the indirect object (whom did Mary give a book?) is Peter.
I believe the first word (the kanji) is England, while アメリカ means America, or USA. Just like 日本, you'd just tack on a 人 or a 語 to make it a nationality or language. However, American can be a nationality, but the language is actually english, which is why the kanji for england is used for the language.
That would make sense, but if you want to specify "American English" or "British English", you say アメリカ英語 or イギリス英語, respectively. Because of the state of English education in Japan, most Japanese probably don't realise the difference, and 英語 typically refers to American English since that's what they learn at school.
A small number of Asian countries and languages have kanji. The United Kingdom and English are Eikoku and Eigo. England is engurando (in katakana) The rest use katakana as they are transliterations of foreign language names/words. https://www.coscom.co.jp/learnjapanese901/country.html (missing UK, England, Scotland, Wales for some reason)
So if I was to write "I can speak English, Spanish, and Japanese" would it be 英語もスペイン語も日本語が話せます or 英語とスペイン語と日本語が話せます? Basically, when I am using many objects/topics, should i use と or も or a combination (i can speak English spanish and also japanese) to conjugate multiple objects.
Both of your Japanese sentences are correct, but I think the と on matches best with your English sentence. The reason being, as you probably already know, is that も means "also" and therefore emphasizes the inclusion of each item in your list.
There's a lot of flexibility in using と and も (and to a lesser extent, や), and it really just depends on your tone and what exactly you want to emphasize. It's possible to combine them, for example: 「英語とスペイン語と日本語も話せます。」emphasizes the fact that you can speak Japanese, in addition to English and Spanish.
My suggestion is that you go back to lower lessons and practice your hiragana more.
I have found it very useful to print out a hiragana and katakana chart that shows the stroke order along with the pronunciation AND to use a Japanese handwriting keyboard (most phone keyboard apps have this as a language option, and you can enable a similar function on computers with touch input - regular mouse input is difficult though, but not impossible). You'll need to use the website instead of the app, though, because the app doesn't yet allow keyboard input for Japanese responses!
Also, try to say everything out loud as you go to build more neural connections between symbols and sounds and meanings.
It's slower, but you'll learn faster.
The translation "The languages I speak are English and Japanese." is not correct? I was thinking that ga meant the focus was on hanasemasu. Is this because hanasemasu is singular and there is a different version for indicating plurals?
Also, the correct translation it gave me at first was "They can speak in English and Japanese." I assume either they or I are fine because there is no context to base this statement off of?
Let's get the easy stuff out of the way: yes, either "they" or "I" should be fine because we don't have enough context.
Back to your first question, from a translation perspective, your suggestion isn't necessarily incorrect, but feels a bit more awkward than the Japanese sentence is. From a learning/grammatical perspective, I would say it's unacceptable because "the languages (that) I speak" is a relative pronoun construction which changes the main verb from "speak" to "are", meaning the Japanese sentence would read more like 「話せる言語は英語と日本語です」(はなせる げんご は えいご と にほんご です) (Literally: "Able to speak language, English and Japanese is")
I'm not sure what you mean by が putting the focus on はなせます, but verbs in Japanese don't have singular or plural forms.
First we need to understand there are three types of verbs. Each type conjugates in a particular way.
- 五段（ごだん）, some Japanese textbook refers this as "Group I"
- 一段（いちだん）, some Japanese textbook refers this as "Group II"
- カ変（かへん） and サ変（さへん）, some Japanese textbook refers this as "Group III"
We look at the end of the verb in dictionary form 辞書形（じしょけい） to "guess" the type of the conjugation. 辞書形（じしょけい） always ends in the "u" column.
- 五段 - They can end in most of the rows in the "u" column: う く す つ ぬ む る ぐ ぶ
- 一段 - They only ends in る, and the sound before the る is in "i" column or "e" column, e.g. みる, いる, ねる, たべる
- カ変 - one verb くる, サ変 - one verb する
Now, to form the potential form,
- 五段 - change the end of the verb from column "u" to column "e" in the same row, and then add る, e.g. かう→かえる, よむ→よめる, あらう→あらえる
- 一段 - remove the る at the end, add られる (or れる in oral form), e.g. たべる→たべ（ら）れる, みる→み（ら）れる, いる→いられる(don't omit ら even in oral)
- くる→こ（ら）れる, する→できる
Don't want to confuse people here with the passive form. Read this for other conjugations. p.s. I find it easier than the French conjugation table.
The speaker is saying I can speak English and Japanese. English and Japanese are not the subjects/are not performing the action. With potential verbs or potential forms of verbs が usually follows the "object" ie. が marks what the speaker is able to do. So in this instance the speaker says "I can speak....." I can speak what? What the speaker can speak precedes が, so "I can speak English and Japanese".
Same question has been asked by LukaszGuzewski. It has to involve course contributors' manual work to enter this kanji in the Duolingo database. And one of them promised to add kanji up to N4 in the new course. https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/30544388/Tree-2-0-UPDATE
They have had this feature for a while. It is very hit or miss whether it recognizes any particular typo. They seem to have to add every typo manually. My phone frequently will autofill "pleas" instead of "please" and I am hoping at some point it will be recognized as a typo.
The only particle that indicates the subject is が. は and も seems to indicate subject sometimes but it is because they supecede が if they are used together.
- はが => は always
- もが => も 99% of times
を never indicates the subject.
- が indicates subject, or the target of ability or desire. It can also be use to indicate contrast by putting it between two clauses as a conjuctive particle (same as "but" in English).
- は brings a phrase/noun to a topic, or indicates a contrast.
- も indicates the phrase/noun has a common attribute with another phrase/noun.
- を indicates the direct object of the verb. Also indicates the waypoint of a movement action.
を always indicates the direct object of the verb - never the subject. も could actually indicate the subject OR the object depending on what it follows. Consider for instance if my friend says: ケーキを 食べました - and I wanted to say that I ate cake TOO. I could either say 私も ケーキを 食べました - I ate cake too. OR Simply 私も - me too. In this instance も follows the subject of the sentence to indicate that I also ate cake.
Compare this with - say I had already said that I had ice-cream for dessert but wanted to add that I had cake as well. Then I would say - ケーキも たべました - I also ate cake or I ate cake as well - in this instance も follows the object to show that cake was what I ate in addition to what I had already told my friend that I had eaten. Hope this makes sense.