"Um, what is your name?"
Firstly, there are two types: honorific 御（お/ご/おん/み/ぎょ） and customary 御. Honorific 御 translates to "you," because it aims to honor the owner of the following word. e.g. お名前（なまえ） your name、ご住所（じゅうしょ） your address、御社（おんしゃ）your company. On the other hand customary 御 is used because it is the way people used to say it. お酒（さけ） Alcoholic drinks、ご飯（はん） rice、御霊（みたま） holy spirit、御曹司（おんぞうし） son of a rich family、御苑（ぎょえん） emperor's garden
Within the customary usage, there are words that are commonly used, or just used by women. e.g. お花（はな）、お水（みず）、お砂糖（さとう） are used by some female people. Most of the people do not prepend お for these words. On the other hand お手洗（てあら）い、お寺（てら）、おはぎ are used by all people. Dropping the お makes the words unnatural.
It can be a respectful construct, or a humble construct, depending on the structure that follows. Examples
- お／ご・・・になる - respect the subject of the verb
- お／ご・・・する - humble the subject of the verb (e.g. me or someone in my social in-group)
- お／ご・・・ください - request the listener to respectfully do something
- お／ご・・・いただく - I humbly benefit from an action done by the listener (i.e. ask the listener to do this action)
I would say so. A direct translation of this sentence would be: "Excuse me/Hey, your name, what is it?" It would be strange without the "what". Though you could just re-phrase the sentence into something like: "あの, お名前わ?" to get rid of 何, though it is a bit more informal.
The 何 is pronounced as "nan" in this case by the way, not "nani".
In the multiple choice, the option of あの、お名前は is the correct answer, but when i go to the comments, it shows あの、お名前は何ですか as the correct. Was it just missing part of the sentence or is this another example of being able to shorten the sentence due to context? Because wouldn't that translate directly to "Um, your name" ?
The あの can be translated to "um" I suppose. Although I would translate あの as "excuse me", since it's used that way more often, as far as I know (to grab someone's attention to ask them something). It's more like a hybrid of "um" and "excuse me". It's not the equivalent of English's "um", where we say it during speeches because we don't know what to say.
This is good to know for speaking, as you can use it when you need to ask someone a question (not just their name, but for help with directions, finding something specific in a store, etc.).
To be straight to the point. When ever you are unsure of how to phrase your sentences, use あの instead of "Um". It is gonna sound strange to a japanese person if you say things like "aaaand", "ummm" or "wellll" when ever you are trying to think of what to say next. あの is your solution to this, more or less. With this it is also an efficient way of easing into a conversation.
Since I'm only a few weeks into the language (albeit with lots of anime experience) I don't know if "あり" (ari) on its own means anything, but if you meant "プール" (puuru/pūru) for the other word, that's just their adaptation of the English word "pool", the kind you swim in.
"プーハ" (puuha/pūha) as you wrote makes me think of the sound effect a character might make in an anime/manga after taking a super refreshing drink of something though.
Side note, I typed "billiards" into google translate, and it gave me "ビリヤード" (biriyaado/biriyādo) which seems right (and swapping the "ヤ" (ya) with an "ア" (a) seems to be an accepted alternate form too), so maybe that's what they call the game version of "pool" over there? Or maybe they also interchangeably call it "pool", I'm not sure haha
Hmm, actually, back on the topic of あり, I guess the first result of a quick google search for "what does あり mean" does say that あり is related to ある (aru) though? So it seems to be some kind of grammar thing, but I'm not quite experienced enough to understand, haha (I don't think those things in particular have been taught here so far)
Edit: I suppose あり has been a part of several things throughout the courses now that I think about it, like ありがとう and ありません… I'm still nowhere near qualified enough to explain all the uses though XD Heck, even the tips and notes for this course have あります as the first thing mentioned!
Don't force it up if it's getting frustrating. Investigate further into the parts that you don't understand, but don't rush. I also had these moments, and it helps to take it slow and Google some disturbances, read up on the Duolingo forums, practice with earlier courses, etc.