"Um, what is your name?"
Firstly, there are two types: honorific 御（お/ご/おん/み/ぎょ） and customary 御. Honorific 御 translates to "you," because it aims to honor the owner of the following word. e.g. お名前（なまえ） your name、ご住所（じゅうしょ） your address、御社（おんしゃ）your company. On the other hand customary 御 is used because it is the way people used to say it. お酒（さけ） Alcoholic drinks、ご飯（はん） rice、御霊（みたま） holy spirit、御曹司（おんぞうし） son of a rich family、御苑（ぎょえん） emperor's garden
Within the customary usage, there are words that are commonly used, or just used by women. e.g. お花（はな）、お水（みず）、お砂糖（さとう） are used by some female people. Most of the people do not prepend お for these words. On the other hand お手洗（てあら）い、お寺（てら）、おはぎ are used by all people. Dropping the お makes the words unnatural.
It can be a respectful construct, or a humble construct, depending on the structure that follows. Examples
- お／ご・・・になる - respect the subject of the verb
- お／ご・・・する - humble the subject of the verb (e.g. me or someone in my social in-group)
- お／ご・・・ください - request the listener to respectfully do something
- お／ご・・・いただく - I humbly benefit from an action done by the listener (i.e. ask the listener to do this action)
I would say so. A direct translation of this sentence would be: "Excuse me/Hey, your name, what is it?" It would be strange without the "what". Though you could just re-phrase the sentence into something like: "あの, お名前わ?" to get rid of 何, though it is a bit more informal.
The 何 is pronounced as "nan" in this case by the way, not "nani".
In the multiple choice, the option of あの、お名前は is the correct answer, but when i go to the comments, it shows あの、お名前は何ですか as the correct. Was it just missing part of the sentence or is this another example of being able to shorten the sentence due to context? Because wouldn't that translate directly to "Um, your name" ?
From what I understand, 名 usually means name in the context of reputation (ex. slander his good name, belive on his name, his name is in the history books, etc.) whereas 名前 is name as in what you are called (ex. My name is Maria, I can't remember your name, what's his name, etc.).
Also I don't know if Duo would accept 君 because as far as I can tell it hasn't been taught yet.
The あの can be translated to "um" I suppose. Although I would translate あの as "excuse me", since it's used that way more often, as far as I know (to grab someone's attention to ask them something). It's more like a hybrid of "um" and "excuse me". It's not the equivalent of English's "um", where we say it during speeches because we don't know what to say.
This is good to know for speaking, as you can use it when you need to ask someone a question (not just their name, but for help with directions, finding something specific in a store, etc.).
To be straight to the point. When ever you are unsure of how to phrase your sentences, use あの instead of "Um". It is gonna sound strange to a japanese person if you say things like "aaaand", "ummm" or "wellll" when ever you are trying to think of what to say next. あの is your solution to this, more or less. With this it is also an efficient way of easing into a conversation.
I fall asleep, often, listening to NKH. So, I wake up to it. ... I have found that the Japanese speakers often use ano, あの, as a space filler, more like anoooo... or あのおおお. Just like (as an American) we say "Ummmm" or "Welllllll" or "Ahhh". ... So, to me, this is similiar to saying "Ahhh, what is your name?"
I don't think it will cause too many problems.
For "that," there will always be a noun immediately after あの (あのバナナ/that banana, あの猫/that cat).
For "um," which is like "excuse me," there's usually a brief pause, whether in English or Japanese, before the main statement. "あの,お手洗い (おてあらい) はどこですか？" Excuse me, where is the restroom?"
The context will usually make it clear.
Um ... not sure about this idea of "Um" being rude in English. Duo's translation sounds fine to me, but functionally this is just another way of starting a statement softly by easing into it. Instead of "um" it might as well be "excuse me," "pardon me," etc.
"Um/Pardon me, what are the hours of this store?" Seems okay to me.
Kanji have multiple pronunciations depending on the context they are used in. Japanese as a language existed long before the writing system, and as kanji were borrowed from Chinese which is a very different language, they had to be molded to fit the grammar and vocabulary of Japanese.
The kun-yomi is a native Japanese reading, applied to the kanji for its similar meaning. This is most commonly found when a kanji is by itself as well as in people's names.
The on-yomi is the Sino-Japanese reading borrowed from Chinese, this is most common when a kanji is in a compound.
It is better to learn the meaning of a kanji and then the reading in the context of the full word it is used in than to memorize every individual reading of a kanji out of context.
語 isn't the best example, as its pronunciation ご as the suffix for languages is the only one that Duo teaches. (Its kun-yomi is かた used in verb 語る・かたる "to tell of, to speak about, to recite")
You may be confusing it with 話 which looks similar and is the stem of the verb 話す・はなす "to speak" and its potential form 話せる・はなせる "To be able to speak" taught in the Intro lessons of the course.
A better example would be one such as 人 meaning "person"
When by itself and in some compounds it is pronounced with its kun-yomi ひと to mean "person"
人々 (人人)・ひとびと - "People"
When used as a suffix for a nationality/type of person it takes its on-yomi じん
When used as a counter for people it becomes り for one and two people and にん for higher numbers:
一人・ひとり One person/alone
二人・ふたり Two people
三人・さんにん Three people
四人・よにん Four people
In other common compound words;
人生・じんせい "Human life"
人形・にんぎょう "Doll, puppet"
人間・にんげん "Human being"
There are also kanji like 日 "Sun/day" and 生 "Life, raw" which both have 18+ readings, many irregular/used in specific words. Kanji are applied to native words for their meaning, so many different words can use the same kanji if those words have similar meanings.
日曜日・にちようび "Sunday" uses two different readings of 日
今日 (now - day) is typically pronounced with the reading きょう meaning "today" but can also be read as こんにち such as in the greeting こんにちは "hello"
日本 "Japan" is the only instance where this kanji is pronounced に
生 is used in many different words related to life;
生 by itself is なま meaning "raw, uncooked"
生きる・いきる - to live
生む・うむ - to give birth
生える・はえる - to grow/to spring up
生る・なる - to bear fruit
せい such as in 学生・がくせい "Student" and 先生・せんせい "Teacher"
しょう such as in 生ずる・しゅずる "to produce", 生涯・しょうがい "lifetime, career" and 生姜・しょうが "Ginger"
I like to think of kanji as the combination of letters "ough" in English. Just looking at the letters you may have an idea of how it is read, but it is different in every word of “A rough-coated, dough-faced, thoughtful ploughman strode through the streets of Scarborough; after falling into a slough, he coughed and hiccoughed.”
Unlike English though, kanji give you the benefit of still understanding what it means even if you can't pronounce it.
Kim suggests you are intimate/ fighting with a person. You don't use "you" when talking to a Japanese person unless you know them very well and even then you should use it sparingly.
Instead, use " [person's last name]-san / -kun (young male) / -chan (young female) wa... " .
if you HAVE to use "you", ie. the sentence grammar depends on it, (only then) you can use "anata". Never use kimi.
と is a quotation particle and needs to be attached to the word or phrase you are quoting (with 'ano' preceding it, your sentence reads as "Are you called 'um'?")
言う・言います is the verb "to say, to be named, to be called", so on it's own 言いますか just says "Do you say?"
You could say 何と言いますか for "What do you say/what are you called" though that is more often used to ask what the word for something is. You could preface it with お名前は "as for your name..." for clarification お名前は何と言いますか - "As for your name...you say what?/you are called what?"