Translation:No, I am not Chinese.
From what I have observed, 国 is the standard way to write that character in Japanese Kanji. It is the same as the simplified Chinese character and not the same as the traditional Chinese character (國). If you are interested in further similarities and differences between Japanese Kanji and different forms of Chinese characters, check out https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shinjitai?wprov=sfla1
Here, the kanji for China is written 中国, but my kanji dicsh says the kanji for China is a different character, which I can't find atm, but apparently it's read as 'kan'. Indeed, put 中国 in to the dictionary, and it doesn't return any results that mean China. What's going on here? Is it simply that there's mumtiple ways to write China in kanji? Thanks in advance.
In the case of は, it is usually save to assume that if it's in an actual word (not a grammatical particle, like the subject maker) that it says "ha".
The exceptions to this rule are when the word is one that started out as a phrase, and became a word later. An example of this is こんにちは (konnichiwa), which started out as the phrase "this day [subject marker]".
In the case of ではありません, it's a little more complicated. From what I know, the で is short for です, the は is actually the subject maker, and ありません is the polite negative form of the verb ある "to exist (inanimate things)". So you're basically saying "As for the statement that I just made, that circumstance does not exist."
I hope that helps
Just to add,
From wiktionary, こんにちはis a short form of 今日はご機嫌いかがですか (how do you feel today) or 今日はお天気いいです(the weather is good today) so the は is actually a preposition, which reads "wa".
で is a preposition needed for a noun to follow the verb ある to mean assertiveness of the noun.
は is another preposition to stress the negative form that follows.
ありません is the negative polite form of ある.
I'm very new to Japanese but I learned は is a topic marker and が is a subject marker. I found this site today and it seems great for using alongside Duo. www.japaneseprofessor.com/lessons/beginning/the-topic-marker-wa/ It should clear things up.
Correct me if I'm wrong, but Desu means (is, are, am), while Deshita means (was, were). Jyuuarimasen, dewaarimasen, and Jyuunaidesu all mean (am not, is not, are not). What is the past tense negative form? Dewaarimadeshita?
Also, Arimasu means (inanimate object that exists I.E. Shukadai ga Arimasu [I have homework]), Imasu means (animate object that exists I.E. Petto ga Imasu [I have a pet]). The negative forms of these are Arimasen (inanimate object that does NOT exist, I.E. Shukadai ga Arimasen [I do NOT have homework]), and Imasen (animate object that does NOT exist, I.E. Petto ga Imasen [I do NOT have a pet])
Side note: the particle "ga" implies ownership, which is why it is used in these scenarios.
For the most part, yes that's right.
(Though が doesn't have anything to do with ownership, it simply puts emphasis on the subject of the sentence)
猫はいます (As for a cat, it exists) "Do you have a cat?" "Yes, I have a cat"
猫がいます (A cat is the thing that exists) "Do you have a pet?" "Yes, a cat is the pet that I have"
Forms of です:
Present/Future - is/am/are
です (polite)・だ (casual - though the usage of this differs a bit than the polite form)
Negative - is not/am not/are not
ではありません dewa arimasen (polite)・ではない dewa nai (semi-casual)・じゃありません jaarimasen (semi-casual)・じゃない janai (casual)
Past - was
でした deshita (polite)・だった datta (casual)
Past Negative - was not
ではありませんでした dewa arimasen deshita (polite)・ ではなかった dewa nakatta (semi-casual)・じゃありませんでした jaarimasen deshita (semi-casual)・じゃなかった janakatta (casual)
Kanji are generally used for nouns (e.g. teacher = 先生 and verbs (e.g. to go = 行きます). Hiragana is used for grammatical particles, equivalent of English prepositions (to/at = に), conjunctions (and = と), verb conjugations (行きます). Katakana is used for loanwords from other languages (e.g. トイレ). Put it all together: 田中先生はトイレに行きます。
It is the classic way of learning Japanese in majority of Japanese textbooks. I personally against it, because the basic form of words is the dictionary form and normal textbooks won't tell you until a bit late in the beginner course, making people think the polite form (teinei form, not keigo) is the base form.
In this sentence 中国人 is not being used as a topic or a subject, it is being used as an adjective/descriptive noun to describe someone (the omitted topic/subject being described would be you/me/he/she). Particles are never used before the copula です, (or in this case the negation ではありません)