Translation:It is 5:45.
We've been shown the numbers 1 through 10 so far, so how do you make numbers greater than 10.
ニ十 (にじゅう)(2 * 10) 
二十六 (にじゅうろく) (2 * 10 + 6) 
三十八 (さんじゅうはち) (3 * 10 + 8) 
This goes on for any number, to get into the hundreds you just use 百 (ひゃく) (hundred)
四百五十三 (よんひゃくごじゅうさん) (4 * 100 + 5 * 10 + 3) 
The exact same thing is true for thousands etc. 千 (せん) (thousand)
二千四百六十八 (にせんよんひゃくろくじゅうはち) (2 * 1000 + 4 * 100 + 6 * 10 + 8)
Now having read all of that you should be able to read this number or any number up to ten thousand (which needs yet another symbol 万、まん).
You can read this right?
@pinkfungi no, Japanese counting is a bit different, in that you never put 一 before 千 (or any of the other powers of ten, e.g. 十, 百). 万 (man = 10,000) is an exception which needs 一in front of it.
Here's some examples:
- 10 = 十 (juu)
- 11 = 十一 (juu ichi)
- 100 = 百 (hyaku)
- 110 = 百十 (hyaku juu)
- 1000 = 千 (sen)
- 1111 = 千百十一 (sen hyaku juu ichi)
- 10000 = 一万 (ichi man)
- 10101 = 一万百一 (ichi man hyaku ichi)
- 100000 = 十万 (juu man)
- 111000 = 十一万千 (juu ichi man sen)
- etc. etc.
Yes, though it would be usually include 年 (ねん) at the end mark it as a year, as opposed to a number. Normally though, it would just be written in numerals, except on formal documents like certificates.
Interestingly, this year is also 二十九年 if you go by Japan's Emperor-based year system. 平成29年 (へいせい), to be exact.
Is it now. There are unique words for numbers 0–20, 30, 40, 50 and 60, 100, 1000, … plus the combining rules (70 = 60+11, 99 = 4*20+10+9). So far this has unique words for numbers 0—10, 100, 1000, 10000, … and a dead simple combining rule; it does sound really hard to listen however.
I got stuck on this for far longer than I should have. Out of nowhere we were given a number higher than 十九, "Ten and nine/Nineteen", which is 四十五, or "Four Tens and Five/Fourty five."
After realising it, it became so obvious. I was staring at 3 numbers in a row to begin with...
In this exercise, we can't. For this sentence, we can only guess based on context.
In later lessons, you'll learn 午前 (ごぜん) for a.m. and 午後 (ごご) for p.m. They go before the time, unlike in English, following Japan's tendency to describe things from big to small. So, "5:45 p.m." would be 「午後五時四十五分」(gogo goji yonjuugofun)
As I mentioned in an earlier comment, for the purposes of these learning exercises, "quarter to six" corresponds to "5:45", but 五時四十五分 doesn't.
Likewise, "forty-five minutes past five" means the same time as "5:45", but Japanese also has different ways of phrasing it. In general "X minutes past Y" is Y時X分過ぎ (すぎ),so strictly speaking, it would be very uncommon, but the correct translation of "forty-five minutes past five" would be 五時四十五分過ぎ.
When you want to say the number 9.
But seriously, the pronunciation of 九 as kyuu vs ku is so irregular, you just have to memorize it as you encounter them. For example:
- 九分 kyuu fun = nine minutes
- 九時 ku ji = nine o'clock
- 十九日 juu kyuu nichi = nineteen days/the 19th (day of a month)
- 九月 ku gatsu = September
To me, it's actually very logical. I simply fail to remember the appropriate words instead :P I nicked my husband's 'Hajime no Ippo' study book, do you have any idea if it's useful? It covers a lot of grammar I have to hunt the web for when Duolingo stumps me (">why< am I saying what am I saying?").