Translation:I am a high school student.
While 小学校 and 中学校 mean literally "Primary School" and "Middle School", 高校 is short for 高等学校 (こう·とう·がっ·こう) that means "Senior High School" or "High-Grade School". Japanese love abbreviations and 高校 are the two most essential Kanji of 高等学校, because while 学校 means school, 学 literally means "to learn" and 校 has the literal meaning of "school". With only those two you can get across that you mean 高等学校
Yes, you would need to include s/he is or I am. Verbs include person ie. who is doing the action. While the endings is verbs in other languages change to show who is doing the action - Spanish - hablo - I speak, hablas - you speak etc, Italian - mangio - I eat, mangi - you eat etc, the verbs of Japanese endings do not change to show person HOWEVER that doesn't mean that person ie. who is doing the action isn't included in the verb - so you still need to translate that accordingly.
As far as I know, there aren't any plural words in Japanese, it just depends on the context. Also, depending on the situation, ごうごう生です can mean "I am a highschool student" or "You are a highschool student" or "they are a highschool student" because it's not specified. If it's not letting you answer with one of these things, you should report it.
Don't change. there is in fact more than one reading for most kanji. That is why when we study kanji, it is more effective to study them in all (or most) of their uses, to decorate themselves as one writes the various words that use it.
For example kanji 一 reads "い ち", but only when the word would be the cardinal number One. If you want to speak from the ordinal "First" the reading would be "ひ と つ" (Adding the "tsu" to differentiate.
This is most evident when one understands that there is the On reading and the Kan reading of Kanji. Kanji 大 in reading ON reads だ い, and a serious use would be 大学 (Big school to the letter, but we can accept a higher school) already the adjective "great" is written 大 き な where reading KUN "お お" makes present. Kanji has not changed. It actually reads differently.
For those who speak English, just compare with vowels, where ALL has more than one reading and everything will depend on the etymology of the word. America's A, does not read like Apple's A.
So keep one thing in mind. Almost every kanji has more than one reading. ALWAYS you want to study a particular one, look directly in a dictionary for all the other readings.
(I don't know if there is an actual explanation, but here is how I interpret the reason, it helps me remember) (I am also using Kanji Tree to help support this)
学 = Study; Learning; Science.
生 = Life; Genuine; Birth
In order to help me remember that, together, they mean student, I take the definitions of each and try to apply it to each other.
Studying Life: In middle and high school, we learn about past events in the world.
Genuine Learning: We are learning something valuable from important events that took place throughout history.
Science and Birth: Everything was created in some way. Science may answer most of our questions as to how such a thing was born!
And all of these happen to a student! We learn and study, get something (probably) valuable out of it!
And that's how 生 works in 学生. Birth (生) of Learning (学) could also be a good interpretation, as students start to learn about things!
I hope this helped in some way.
Britain by a long way, the British English translation of this sentence is... I am a secondary school pupil - although the use of high has become more popularised. But definitely not student, you only become a student when you hit college, which is not the same thing as college in the US (that's university).
That is a grammatically correct sentence, but you'd rarely actually say that. Japanese is a highly context-based language, so the subject (わたし and its particle は, in this case) is usually omitted. It's not wrong to include it, but you'll sound incredibly weird.
The original sentence could technically be translated as, "I'm a high school student," "You're a high school student," "He's a high school student," etc. All of those are correct since it omitted the subject. It would just be up to the rest of the conversation to provide context as to who the subject was. You'd only explicitly include it if it would otherwise be unclear.
i understand that if the subject is missing it is pertaining to the speaker. but in other examples like "teburu desu" , they say "it is a table" not "i am a table". it gets confusing because i don't know which answer should be correct since the sentence isn't really complete
We do use "it" for talking about people occasionally, especially when we know very little about the person and/or don't want to reveal their gender, or want to dehumanise them: "Guess who's been graffitt-ing the toilets? It's a high school student". One that basis I think it should be acceptable, but it wouldn't be a common translation.