"No, I do not live in Kyoto."
It's to add emphasis by making きょうと the topic as well as the target of the に particle.
It's like the difference between "I don't live in Kyoto" (neutral statement of fact) and "I don't live in Kyoto" (emphasis on Kyoto, as though you're making a specific point about that place, maybe in contrast to somewhere else). It's subtle and not required, but adding the は changes the tone
Japanese shares very similar grammar (and sentence structure) to Korean. This one, in particular, is almost identical to Korean. The first sentence would be understood as "I don't live in Kyoto" and the second one would be better understood as "I (really) have no wish to live in Kyoto." The first sentence is more of a direct reply to someone's inquiry about whether you lives in Kyoto or not (eg. Do you still live in Kyoto?). The second sentence, on the other hand, is more about how one felt about Kyoto (eg. Would you like to live in Kyoto?).
Hopefully that helps, and correct me if I'm wrong.
Duolingo is a lot like how we learn languages as children, at first things will be confusing at times, but as time goes by it'll begin to make sense. If you want explanations I would recommend Marugoto or Japanese from Zero which are both free. https://a1.marugotoweb.jp/en/ https://www.yesjapan.com/YJ6/
I have found an explanation by a native speaker of Japanese:
Teaching using kanji is a very, very bad way to teach. Language is speech. The human brain is adapted to associate spoken words with meaning, and that is how we - unless we are deaf - learn as children.
We have three different things, here: a spoken word, a meaning that we are supposed to associate it with in our heads, and a sequence of characters that is conventionally used to represent it in writing.
Giving us all three things together is information overload, and expecting us to associate all three with each other simultaneously is just too much. It is not how the human brain is adapted to work.
It would much more sensible to teach the associations one at a time: first, the association between spoken word and meaning, and only later, when that association is firmly embedded, the association between spoken word and its written representation.
You have thus removed the ridiculous task of "learn to associate these unfamiliar things with each other" and instead have two tasks, in sequence, each of which is "learn to associate this unfamiliar thing with this familiar thing".
My comment on all of these multiple choice questions: at this point, everyone should know that "no" is いいえ, so having two other choices that start with something else is rather stupid. I see the first three characters and I know which one it is. You should force people to read the entire sentence. I try to do it every time.
Well, we're all here to learn so I don't think we have to be forced to answer near identical questions. I suspect that the questions get more similar choices as we advance. I've certainly seen that happening with the kanji cards, with both the kanji and their sounds getting more similar as I've advanced.
I think most of us are!
One person thought that it was that in the second sentence you were making Kyoto the topic of the sentence as well as the location. There have also been dark murmurings about は being a contrast marker and not just a topic marker, so maybe you're saying something like, "In contrast with other places that you might mention, Kyoto is not where I live."
But I might have got hold of the wrong end of the stick, there.
The following article might help clarify these things:
The plain form of the verb is 住む ("sumu").
The "te" form of the verb, which we are only just encountering in this one verb at the moment, is 住んで ("sunde").
Beyond that, I am still somewhat hazy about it, myself! So be sure to ignore the next two paragraphs altogether!
My current vague understanding is that 住んで ("sunde") means "living", in some sense, but I'm not sure if you can use it by itself. In these lessons, at least, you have to stick something else on the end - in this case, いません ("imasen"), but it could also be います ("imasu") - to turn it into a verb that you can use. I'm not sure if you can say, 「私は京都に住んで。」 ("watashi wa kyōto ni sunde."), but you can say, 「私は京都に住んでいます。」 ("watashi wa kyōto ni sundeimasu.") And that means, "I live in Kyoto."
I think that the "te" form of a verb plus "imasu" means that you are doing the thing continuously, as an ongoing thing, rather than as something you do again and again. When we learnt to say, "I go to school," with, "Gakkō e ikimasu," we were saying that it was something that we did habitually, rather than something that we did continuously.
Yes. The character 住 is here being used to write a part of the verb whose plain form is 住む ("sumu").
The "te" form of the verb, which we are only just beginning to learn, is 住んで ("sunde").
The same kanji crops up in the written representations of several other words that are also related to living. That's "living" in the sense of "dwelling" or "inhabiting", you understand, rather than "being alive".
Does 京東 have some meaning, though? It has come up on Duolingo before, in those exercises in which it gives you some hiragana or something, and you have to select between several options for the corresponding kanji. For きょうと, you have to avoid the options 東京 and 京東 and click on 京都.