"Her older brother is a fifth grader."

Translation:かのじょのおにいさんは小学五年生です。

June 8, 2017

37 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Synclair.

Could someone explain me when to use 'ha' and when to use 'no'?

June 8, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/PPMachen

I'm glad you asked this, because this is one of the features of Japanese that makes the language beautiful.

So in attempting to read a string of complicated characters, some of the questions one would like to answer is "What is this sentence talking about? What is the subject of this sentence? What is the subject doing? What is the subject doing something to?" and "What are the relationships between subject/noun and objects in the sentence?"

In Japanese some Hiragana symbols are used syntactically in ways which help clarify these questions, and are referred to as "particles." So far up to this point in Duolingo you've seen quite a few of them. Namely:

ね - used when looking for agreement or confirming a statement

Example: 寒いです! "It is cold!" そおうですね "Yes it is."

は and が are used to mark the "topic" and "subject" of the sentence respectively. It is important to note that the "subject" of a sentence has a grammatical relationship only to the verb, while the topic is a non grammatical context for the whole sentence.

The difference between these two is highly nontrivial, and a good explanation is given here: https://japanese.stackexchange.com/questions/22/whats-the-difference-between-wa-は-and-ga-が?newreg=3675ce533daa412aa5ae1676a45f834d

But for now, a good heuristic is to think of は as marking something already familiar to both speakers in the conversation.

For example, if a friend visits your family and sees your brother, both speakers would know who "he" is in the following sentence

彼は私のおにさんです "He is my older brother."

Now suppose while in the conversation, you observed a cat outside behind the person you are talking to eating a bird. In this situation if you mention a cat with は, this is assuming the speaker already knows which cat you are referring to and would be incorrect. Here we would say:

猫が鳥を食べます "The cat eats the bird"

More detail about these including other uses for both か and が can be found at this link: https://thoughtco.com/japanese-particles-wa-vs-ga-4091105

の - In the beginning contexts here is used to indicate possesion. When you see "AのB," just think of the grammatically correct way to say "A's B."

For example:

彼女の猫 "Her cat"

ブランドノの犬 "Brandon's dog"

の also has various other uses which are explained here: https://thoughtco.com/particles-o-and-no-2027923

June 10, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/vini-lachner

This deserves double upvote

June 15, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Epolonte

Thank you!

June 20, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Rhodii

This was seriously so helpful to me. Thank you so much!!!

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/antoniojack

Could you then change the order of the sentence, like the "word-ha" with the "word-no" somehow?

June 16, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Voreinstellung

The word order in any Japanese sentence realistically doesn't matter due to particles. However, you MUST put the object and verb at the end.

June 22, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/GayanShali

Ha is when you want to specify the topic. No is used to discribe the possessiveness of something. Try the youtube. Lot of interesting material there.

June 8, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Blank967888

Since the subject of the sentence is the older brother, the 'ha' comes after him.

June 9, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Originalimoc

why do I need 小学

June 26, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/SirPencil

Since the latest update, when placing a word, it does no longer pronounce it, which makes it a lot harder to verify what you are doing.

June 19, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Tara_han

How do we know whether it's 小学 or 中学 when the English is fifth grader?

June 20, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Watchthewaves

I think they expect you to know the Japanese schooling system. Grades 1-6 are [小学], Grades 7-9 are [中学], Grades 10-12 are [高校] and Grade 13 onwards are all considered [大学]

March 7, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/BraydonAnd

You would use the kanji for 5 (五)...

October 26, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Viraj_Kumar

Hmm

June 10, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/antoniojack

What does the "お" do?

June 17, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/somebody959678

It's a polite prefix to add to many nouns (お皿、お兄さん, etc) which is actually a form of keigo.

June 24, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/orchid223

Something seems to be going on with the program for me. "Desu" was not available, but it marked me correct without it. This is the third time I've had a sentence dealing with younger or older brother that is missing the pieces I need to answer the question correctly.

February 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/secret_sAndwich

Would a native speaker understand you if you left out 小学?

It was counted correct when I typed 「彼女のお兄さんは五年生です」, but I'm curious if that sounds weird to a native.

February 4, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/KZE19

Same. @.@

March 28, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Helen834352

Does かのじょ usually imply an older female? I have never heard it in reference to younger girls before. Any clarification is appreciated, thanks!

June 10, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Chris651248

It's also important to remember that in the vast majority of cases, Japanese doesn't use pronouns. Since かのじょ also means "girlfriend" (and かれ = "boyfriend") you may hear the word more in that context. Duolingo seems to just be using it for the sake of convenience.

June 22, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/I.X.

It's for both younger and older females. (As for me, I usually hear older males refer to younger girls as kanojo.)

June 13, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/echoyumi

かのじよのおにいさん小学五年生 ですlooks exactly like the correct answer.. this keeps happening to me. what am I doing wrong..

October 29, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Alaska-chan

seems like you forgot the は after おにさん

January 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Lluis_Indp

It lacks the "は" particle but I suppose you solved that much time ago

January 1, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/nidominika

you forgot about 「は」between 「おにいさん」and「小学五年生」

January 14, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/nidominika

you forgot about 「は」between 「おにいさん」and 「小学五年生」 :)

January 14, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/MikeWalker46

Can't you leave out the pronoun, so it's just "おにいさんは小学五年生です"?

September 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/JohaoMikae

can't write shogaku in kanji, plz help, all i get is 書学

January 5, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Juliette780952

小学 You have to type it out in hiragana しょうがく it will then turn into 小学. Try it again. Make sure ょ is small not よ.

January 11, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/secret_sAndwich

You gotta visualize the romaji for this one.

Rather than saying "shogaku", it's written (and pronounced) as "shougaku".

So the kana looks like しょうがく and if you hit space or enter afterwards, it should come out as 小学。

As a side note, I had to hit spacebar twice to shuffle to the correct kanji.

February 4, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Doris518217

The tile options presented contained no に character, which was demanded in the "Correct Solutions."

April 13, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/jtimmons

I used が instead of は in my response, which was otherwise the same as the translation given, and it was marked incorrect. Should my translation have been accepted, or is が wrong in this case? And if it's wrong, does someone know the reason why?

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AlexPeykov

I always remember the "wa" as "am" or "is" and the "no" as ""my," "hers," or "theirs."

June 9, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Il-Mentore

I forgot to add "ha" :(

February 20, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/GHthree

Great explanation!

April 13, 2018
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