Translation:That table is long.
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Kono denots something that is 'at' the speaker, poaaibly being held. Sono is something not at the speaker but still nearby, say within 5 feet or so. Ano is something that is further away, like in a different room or building. They don't really perfectly translate to the, this, or that.
～れ words are pronouns. These stand in for other nouns.
これ - This
それ - That
あれ - That (over there)
どれ - Which one?
～の words are pre-noun adjectives. These are a contraction of the ～れ pronoun and the noun-grouping particle の. These must be paired with a noun.
この - This (noun)
その - That (noun)
あの - That (noun) over there
どの - Which (noun)?
それはテーブルです "That is a table"
そのテーブルです "It is that table"