Translation:I do not go to school.
Try analyzing at the Japanese sentence structure without looking at the choices at the bottom. Just try to read it and form your very own English structure, it doesn't have to be the same, as long as it is similarly correct! :-) Good luck and like the person said, Keep on practicing!
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I've been trying to analyze it step-by-step as a very literal english translation.
School (time or location marker) go do (not). Nonsense in english, but just coherent enough to extract meaning. Someone doesn't go to school, and since it was unspecified we assume that person is "I."
I don't know how effective it is, but my logic is that japanese speakers interpret the sentence as they read it, in the order they read it. Just like I do with english sentences, although it happens without me thinking.
About 90% of the deleted comments here are some form of "same" and aren't productive to the conversation; just cluttering up the discussion making it more difficult for learners to find actual questions and answers. This it typically why comments are removed on sentence discussions. If you agree with something or want to thank someone it's best to upvote or lingot them so others will see them. :)
No longer an issue on any platform ^^, though the mobile app still lacks timestamps on comments as of July 2021. On the slim chance that anyone knows one of the UI/UX staff, please give them a nudge. Knowing the age of a discussion is useful for deciding whether or not to follow-up on a recent (or ancient) comment.
No. The ~ません makes it negative。Everything that ends with ~ません is negative. There are only two irregular verbs in the whole language, and even they follow this rule.
あります means "to exist" or sometimes we use it to mean "I have" ("Speaking of myself, there exists a pencil" = "I have a pencil.") ありません is the negative.
Hope this helps!
Good question! Let's say you have Pikachu.
ピカチューはポケボールに行きます。 Pikachu goes in the pokeball. Yes, it can also mean he goes "to" the pokeball, but the implication is that he's going to stop there, either standing on top or going inside.
ピカチュウはポケボールへ行きます。 Picachu goes toward the pokeball. There is no guarantee that he is going inside the pokeball.
I use Pikachu with my students because they know he doesn't want to go in the pokeball, so it's easier for them to see the slight difference between に・へ。
In actual usage, however, you can use these two words interchangeably. They just give a little nuance.
Also, don't forget, you can have a million of them in one sentence:
七時に友達と一緒にデパートに買い物に行きます。 At seven o'clock a friend and I are going to the department store in order to go shopping. So に is a very flexible particle!
Hope this helps!
My best suggestion is to find the nearest community college that offers "Extended Learning" classes. These are evening or weekend classes that do not get graded, and they are much cheaper than actual credits. There is more engagement, since you are in an actual classroom with other students where you are all practicing the language on each other.
You could also volunteer to help out at your local high school, assuming they have a Japanese class. I love to have adults in my classroom, especially when we do big projects like playing restaurant or playing store. You would get practice, the students would get extra practice, and you would have the ear of the Japanese teacher, whom I am assuming would be happy to get to know you. And put you to work. ;) Just some thoughts.
:) I just wanted to show all the に・へ mixed into one sentence. The kanji aren't important in my example. I'll break it down for you if you want, though.
ピカチューはポケボールに行きます。 Pikachu goes in the pokeball.
行く = いく → "to go"
ピカチュー is katakana, reserved for foreign words, made up words, or italics.
七時 =しちじ → 7 o'clock
友達 = ともだち → friend
一緒 = いっしょ → "together with"
デパート = Department store
買い物 = かいもの → Literally, "things you buy." This means "shopping" here.
Hope this helps!
Hmmm.... Sometimes. (I teach Spanish, too...) Sometimes you will need a little extra, like 「~のために」And there's no "personal a" in Japanese. And sometimes you'll want to use "encima de" or "en"... Give me some time to work up a good comparison. My brain is filled with how to create Remote Learning classes today...
へ and に are sometimes interchangeable (though I heard that へ is much more formal than に).
I would recommend you to read this article http://www.punipunijapan.com/japanese-particle-ni-e/
To put it simply "ヘ" is the direction, and "に" is the location. Edit: @Tamanakio1 is incorrect. "ヘ" is the direction or recipient of an action, "に" is the location or time marker. If I was going to say I am going to France I'd say フランスへ行きます。 France is the direction I am going. But if I was going to say "there is a convenience store over there" I'd say あそこにコンビニがあります。 "Over there" is the location of the Convenience store.
The -masu conjugation is "non-past" and can mean both habitual activity (I do not go to school in general or under certain specified circumstances) or future tense (I will not go to school in the near or distant future), and what the speaker means is figured out through context.
"not currently going" would require the progressive "-te iru" conjugation
But to be clear, "Gakkou ni ikimasen" only means that I don't go to the school's physical location, right? It doesn't also mean that I don't attend classes, as it does in English? For instance, one could go to a school and not attend any classes, or one could attend online classes and never go to the school in person.
Confused to why it is "に" instead of "へ". According to duolingo "へ" indicates direction towards which something or someone moves and "に" is used when refering to a point in time?
I'm a bit confused since they're talking about "学校" (School) which I feel would count as indicating direction towards something.
Good call! This is called the "emphatic は”. We stick it in a sentence to say, "Hey, just to let you know, there's a negative coming up."
Yes, with this sentence out of context, it would have been totally acceptable to say 「学校 には行きません。」
To give you the best example of emphatic は, it's what we see in the middle of ではありません。
Hope this helps!
Grammatically, Japanese does not have a future tense in the sense of a verb form reserved strictly for the future. However, that's because the whole idea of present tense is ambiguous. It's more accurate to say there is no present tense and the plain form is the future tense in addition to other usages. Ref: http://www.guidetojapanese.org/blog/2008/05/26/actually-japanese-has-future-tense-kind-of-2/
I think that's just one of the quirks of English. "The office" is the location where we go to work and it sounds strange to "go to office".
While "going to school" is like the action of going somewhere to learn, with more emphasis on the implied intention, "going to the school" is just the action of going to the building that is the school without the learning aspect implied.
Then there are locations like "hospital" which don't take "the" in the UK but sound very strange without a "the" in the US.
Just like in English if you are saying you refuse to do something then you can use the verb "to refuse" 断る or 拒否する
I feel like "I do not (do something habitually)" and "I will not (do something in the future)" already have an aspect of refusal built into them in both languages, since you are emphasizing an inaction anyway.
Yes, に is a preposition meaning 'in', 'on', or 'at', or in the case of motion verbs, 'to' or 'towards' (in this last case, it is often interchangeable with へ, which I'm not going to get into here). It can also mean 'at', which is how it works with hours of the dsy: 八時に学校へ行きます。 I think (not 100% sure about this) that you could also say 八時に学校に行きます, but since you've already used に once in the sentence, へ is probably better to avoid redundancy.
And yes, 。is the Japanese form of a period used to punctuate the end of a sentence.
They do. If we rewrote "行きません" in hiragana alone (i.e. avoiding kanji), it would be "いきません"--or, if we romanized it, "ikimasen." It's harder to hear because it's right after に, but if you listen closely, it should sound like に is about twice as long as any other syllable. The second half of that sound is い, the pronunciation of 行.
に and へ can both be used to mark a location and can often be used interchangeably.
へ is used for direction and indicates movement. It can be thought of as "towards". You are going to a destination though you may get distracted along the way, or you may not stay at that destination and keep going.
に focuses on the location itself. You go to a specific place with a specific purpose. This particle is very versatile and and can also be used to mark times. It is a closer translation to "to" or "at".
So へ stresses your journey, and に is your destination. Either should be acceptable in these translations though.
行 is the kanji for "go", in this case it is pronounced い as part of the verb "go" 行く - "iku"
gakkou ni ikimasen
Kanji often have multiple readings depending on how they are used. The sound Duo tends to play for this kanji by itself is "kou", the reading it takes in words like 銀行 "ginkou" - "bank"
学 is "study, learning, science", its on-yomi (sino-japanese) reading がく can mean the noun "learning, scholarship, study, knowledge" when by itself or as a suffix, its kun-yomi (native japanese) reading is used for the verb 学ぶ・まなぶ・ to learn
校 is "exam, school, printing, proof, correction" has no native Japanese readings and is never really used by itself unless as a counter for proofs of a book. Here it is used as a suffix meaning "school"
Is there any difference here between "do not" and "will not"? I'm thinking of previous sentences (examples of which suddenly escape me LOL) where "I do something" and "I WILL do something" seem to be interchangeable.
Sure！ You will be able to tell by context. But in general, present tense (I do something) and future tense (I will do something), are the same in Japanese. So it will be the same for "I don't do something" and "I will not do something."
I also might add an emphatic は, for example: 学校には行きません。This draws attention to the fact that a negative is coming up, so you will get your context across easier. But you won't know what that context is if you have an isolated sentence like this.
And, of course, you can add context with other word choices. I you want to say "I will not go to school" with the nuance of "I refuse to go to school," you can add the word "absolutely" to get something along the lines of "I absolutely will not go to school." 学校には絶対（ぜったい）にいきかせん。
You can also add time components to get the nuance of "I'm not currently going to school." 今日（きょう）は学校に行きません。(I don't go to school today.)
But context is your friend, so just think logically about what is going on. I tell my students that when you learn a language, it's like doing a sudoku puzzle or any logic puzzle.
Hope this helps!
This is very, very helpful. Thanks for providing such useful detail.
The bottom line I guess is that the context, combined with the addition of other particles and words, can bring added nuance and colour to a statement: which is probably true of most languages! LOL
Thank you for the great advice! :)
Not at all a stupid question! you could use this sentence for both, depending on the context.
To add context, you could mention "today"
This would imply of course that you usually go, but not today.
I might also add an emphatic 「は」： 学校には行きません。 This draws attention to the fact that there is a negative coming up. Without further context, I would take it to mean, "I don't go to school (in general)." But, there are a million scenarios that I can think of where it would give the nuance of "I'm definitely not going to school today" or something like that.
Yes, it is hard when Duolingo gives one sentence at a time out of context. But I like that my students get basic 漢字 and grammar practice in a game-like setting. Just keep hitting report and eventually all the possible variants will be there.
And someday, we'll have Duolingo Stories in Japanese, and the context will be obvious. ;)
Japanese inflections are so easy!
～ます -- The "yes" version of the verb. ("I do this.")
～ません -- the negative, the "no" version. ("I don't do this.")
～ました -- past tense, "yes." ("I did this.")
～ませんでした past tense, negative ("I didn't do this.")
These are all polite forms, by the way.
Hope this helps!
「行く」 is pronounced 「いく」. Careful! If you leave off any ひらがな after it, just by writing「行」, you get the 音読み（おんよみ), or traditional Chinese-style reading of「こう」or even sometimes 「ぎょう」.
The Japanese-style pronunciation is called the 訓読み（くんよみ）。
Remember that since written language came from China, (and therefore so many people were studying Chinese), that each kanji will have two or maybe six different ways of pronouncing it, depending on the wave of contact with China. So those hiragana after the kanji are crucial to determining how the kanji is pronounced.
「に」can mean at, in, on, to... Context will help you. Here, because we are using the verb "to go," it makes more sense in English to say "to." It's a particle, just like は・が・か・を・へ・まで。。。When I was in school in Japan, teachers often gave us fill-in-the-blank sentences where we would have to put the correct particle. So take heart that even Japanese schoolchildren have to work on this.
Hope this helps!
No, good guess, but not the case. 「に」is a direction marker, so think of it as meaning "to" or "in."「で」can be a place marker (among other things), meaning "an action occurs in this location." Or, 「で」can mean that you are using something.
I usually show my students a bunch of pictures to illustrate this. Let me try in words:
カフェテリアでたべます。I eat in the cafeteria. This absolutely must be 「で。」The cafeteria is the place where the action of eating takes place. It would be ungrammatical with 「に。」
おはしで たべます。I eat with chopsticks. This is a second use for 「で」。Think of it as "using."
カフェテリアにいます。I am in the cafeteria. The fact that I exist is not technically an action, at least not in the Japanese concept. It absolutely must take 「に。」
カフェテリアに行きます。I go to the cafeteria. The cafeteria is the destination. You could also use へ。
バスで行きます。I go by bus. I use the bus to go somewhere.
カフェテリアで行きます。I use the cafeteria to go somewhere. Maybe I ride in the cafeteria.
I hope this helps!
That guess is correct :)
The verb endings determine if it is positive or negative, as well as the tense.
行きます - Go/will go (present/future)
行きません - Do not go/will not go (neg present/future)
行きました - Went (past)
行きませんでした - Did not go (past neg)
particles mark the function of a noun in a sentence (topic, subject, object, location, time, destination, utensil, etc.). The topic/contrast particle は is more common in negative sentences, but does not itself make the sentence negative.
dam, sum of yall comments are from 3 years ago you probably already know Japanese now, but im just on level 1 im just started level one but if someone in the future read this um yeah I probably already know Japanese and Korean so yeah ummmmmmm im having a very hard time DOING THIS IT IS NOT EASY OK!!!!!!!!!!
In the lesson "tips" it says that the particle へ is a direction particle as in "to the office" and it lists に as the location and time particle such as "at 9 o'clock", "in May", "on Monday". So why is the に particle used here instead of へ?
Should it not be: 学校へ行きません instead of 学校に行きません???
に is a very versatile particle and also marks a destination/target of movement.
に puts more focus on the destination, the place that you do/do not go to. If you に a place you are likely to go there with a purpose and stay there for some time. You would also use this with instantaneous actions like 車に乗ります "get in the car"
へ puts more focus on the direction; the journey and movement itself. If you へ a place, you are going in the direction of that location but it is unclear if you will go directly there or if you will stay there once you arrive or just keep going. You would use this to talk about the path you took, especially if that path was a long journey. 北へ行きます "I go to the north", 日本へようこそ "Welcome to Japan"
In most cases they are completely interchangeable for marking a destination, though if you are also stating a time which would use に you may choose へ over に for a destination to avoid using に repeatedly.
In a negative sentence like this you may use に because you are talking about not going to a specific destination, you don't need to emphasize the path you did not take.