You can view it that way if you like. "Richter" comes from the verb "richten" which has a lot of meanings, "to put something right" is only one of them. There are also "to judge", "to condemn" and "to execute" (as in putting your head in a basket). But I like your interpretation better. Concerning politicians I tend to agree.
No. At least not in everyday usage. I don't know of any, but there might be a specific technical context in which they could match, e.g. referees in sports are often called 'Wertungsrichter, Kampfrichter' or 'Schiedsrichter' in German. In some sports – like fencing – referees are called directors in English. It doesn't fully work out in the case of fencing, however, because the French term 'directoire technique' is used in English as well. That's the closest I could get to a counter example.