"I like to work and study."
しごとis the noun and はたらく is the verb form of 'work'. This grammatical pattern demands a noun, so we use しごと. The translation in English isn't very precise as to what's going on in Japanese. But this is one of the reasons why translating between the two languages takes creativity. Because what sounds natural and grammatically correct in one language, if translated directly word for word, would creat a phrase that is grammatical inacurate or just plain clunky as hell.
You cannot use と after a verb if you want to say "and". It connects nouns.
It works, if you use verb+こと (turn them into nouns) for both verbs. Though that can sound awkward, depending on the verb.
If you use と after a verb, it has a different meaning. It can mean "if" or it can function as a quotation marker after a clause in front of verbs like "think", "believe" or "say".
For more details and a few example sentences, here is a nice grammar explanation:
I think "I like to work"/"I like working" is
- の can be ommited.
In this topic:
★ 働く(はたらく) - verb "to work"
★ (の)事 【(の)こと】 - nominalizing suffix; add to base form of verb to turn the verb into a noun
★ 好き (すき) - adj. "like"
I think there are times you can use both (https://www.wasabi-jpn.com/japanese-grammar/nominalizers-koto-and-no/) but then feel free to correct me and elaborate. I like learning.
Let me introduce you to an invaluable resource: http://jisho.org/search/%E3%81%97%E3%81%94%E3%81%A8
You can use も instead but it's a bit different because it comes after each list item instead of between them, as well as replacing the other particle: しごともべんきょうも好きです。
I feel like it has slightly different connotations in how it's used but unfortunately I can't find a way to put that into words directly yet; hopefully someone else will reply and do that. I'm also not sure whether it can be used with other particles like に or へ
I don't get why that makes it wrong to use は here... As far as I know (which is not that far to be honest :D), は should be acceptable depending on context.
A: 何が好きですか？ (What do you like?)
B: 仕事と勉強が好きです。(が should be used because "working" and "studying" are new information.)
A: 仕事と勉強は好きですか？ (Do you like to work and study?)
B: 仕事と勉強は好きです。 (は should be used because "working" and "studying" have been previously mentioned and the new information is that you like it)
Can someone explain to me why the second example doesn't work?
There's nothing wrong with using が in the second sentence, and in fact, I think it would be preferred to use が. You still want to emphasize those are the things you like, as that's still not known to the person that asked you the question. In fact, that's why they asked. I'm still a beginner though, so take my words with a grain of salt.
I also used は I thought it works, if you are speaking of something that is known or was already mentioned. And I think in this case, that could be the case, like someone had said before "I hate working or studiying" and then this phrase, like "but I like it" ... no? Am I getting this wrong?
If somebody asked you something like "why do you work and study all the time?" and you wanted to answer "I like to work and study", then yes, I agree, は would be appropriate. Whereas if somebody asked you what activities you liked doing, then only が would be appropriate. I'd agree は should be accepted, though I can see why most likely use cases of this sentence would be more natural with が.
In this case (and this is the reason why が is mostly used over は preceding 好き), using は would be like saying work and study is the only thing you like, while が is more of a highlight of one thing you like among other things.
These two particles are tricky to get your head around. I'll link a useful video for distinguishing the difference between the two:
Are you sure about that? I don't think using は would indicate that those are the only things you like. I feel it would be like you just mentioning them in passing, kind of like: "Yes, as for studying and working, I do like it" almost as if a 'but' is coming later. I can't be sure, but I really don't think は makes the sentence exclusive.
I thought べんきょうします would be in its plain form of べんきょうする,not just べんきょう, unless my teacher was actually wrong.
I like to think of べんきょう, when it's by itself like that, as "studying"(noun), instead of "to study"(verb).
But "to study" I believe would be, べんきょうする, as you've said. Your teacher was correct.
I think the English translation of the Japanese sentence should actually be "I like work and studying(noun)."
I had this question too, because my understanding was that が is a subject marker and を is an object marker. But I think my confusion was because while in the English translation of "I like X" the thing that I like is the object (X), I don't think that's exactly how 好き works... It behaves more like an intransitive verb or a property, "X is liked". At least that's how I'm trying to think of it. Would love to hear others' opinion!
です is always optional, it's just a politeness marker, not really a true verb. Japanese adjectives carry the meaning of "to be" implicitly, which is why they conjugate.
好き isn't a true adjective, though, it's really a noun which is also used as a 'na-adjective', so in this case you would need だ if you drop the です or else it is grammatically incorrect (essentially, missing a verb).
That isn't true. です is only sometimes a meaningless thing added for politeness. Other times it actually does function as the verb of the sentence and the sentence does not function with it.
For example, consider the sentence "It is a dog." This would be translated as 犬です. If I dropped the です, suddenly my entire sentence is just 犬, which is just the word dog and doesn't mean the same thing as the original sentence.
For another example, consider the sentence, "I"m Tanaka." Translated, it's 田中です. If you dropped the です, suddenly you're just saying the name 田中, which is not at all the same meaning as the original.
Very late reply, but might be helpful to other people reading:
Yes. Both "shigoto" and "benkyou" belong to a class of word called "suru verb", which are nouns that can be combined with the verb "suru (to do)" to form verbs. The slight twist here is that "suru" is irregular, and its stem changes to "shi" for most common forms of the verb.
Alternatively you can look at it as a compound verb - "benkyou suru" = to study - but that makes it less obvious that you can use the first half of a suru verb as a noun so I don't like that approach as much
Conjugate your verbs properly. http://www.japaneseverbconjugator.com/VerbDetails.asp?txtVerb=%E5%83%8D%E3%81%8F
I'm surprised that my response was rejected. 「仕事と勉強するのが好きです。」
it seems to be that just having 勉強 would be studies (noun) but having the verb form would be the way to go.
it would sound awkward in translation "I like work and studies" vs I like to work and study (where study is used as a verb)
Am i wrong here?
Well, Duolingo doesn't have a lot of wriggle room as it is, but i think you might have misread the translation target: "I like TO work and study", you can't really say either as a noun then.
Another bad habit Duolingo unfortunately enforces is rejecting kanji that hasn't been taught, so as unfortunate as it it, you can't just smoothly write and convert (金よう日 in particular will cause gray hairs...)
の (or こと) is used after a verb to instead turn it into a noun, yes. What you're doing in your sentence, though, is taking a noun (勉強), changing it to a verb (勉強する), then trying to change it back into a noun by adding の. It's just messy and unnecessary. You had a noun in the first place in 勉強 if you wanted a noun.
There is clearly an "I" in the English sentence in this example - "I like to work and study." The person above you was pointing out that there is no corresponding 私 in the Japanese sentence because subjects are frequently omitted, unlike English. You couldn't just say, "Like to work and study" in English and have it be easily understood that you're talking about yourself, but you can in Japanese.
Sort of. べんきょうします is a compound verb, formed of the noun べんきょう (study) and the polite form します of the irregular verb する (to do).
These compound verbs are also called "suru verbs" because they are formed with a noun followed by the relevant conjugation of する.
しごと is the same. It's a noun meaning "work" or "job", but is also used as a suru verb for "to work".
You can disregard v49's "advice". For grammatical lessons, i recommend Tae Kim's (link below) section on particles, it's far too much to simply explain, and he does it beautifully.
I haven't tested this, but wouldn't しごとするとべんきょうするのが好きです。be more correct for this sentence? To me, しごととべんきょうが好きです。means that you like like work and study as nouns, not as actions. Am I incorrect in that thought? I'm thrown of by the inclusion of "to" in the English sentence.
Because "work and study" isn't just a topic/ context you're providing information about, it's literally the key new information you're providing: "it's work and study that's what I like doing". With "ha" it would be like "as for work & study, I like them", which we might be something you'd answer if someone asked you how work & study were going for you, but you'd never say "I like to work and study" in that case.
The verb 好く "to like" is considered obsolete and is no longer used. Instead the nominalized 好き is used in modern Japanese. Since 好き is a noun a copula such as です is necessary.
This likely became the more common form as Japanese tends to avoid directness. It sounds better to say that something has the quality of "Likeable/fondness" than to state a direct action of doing 'like' to something. This also happens with a lot of words related to feelings, as feelings are interpreted as things that happen to you and not things you actively choose to do to something. Qualities of 'work' and 'study' evoke the feeling of fondness in you, you do not actively choose to have fondness for work and study.
嫌い "dislike" is the same; even though it looks like an い-adjective, it is actually also a noun derived from the verb 嫌う
You will still see 好 used in the verb 好む・このむ meaning "to prefer"