Translation:There is a table in front of me.
Actually there's nothing wrong with this sentence. Japanese infer most of their meaning. Unlike in English they don't like to spell out every noun or subject. "There is a table in front of." Doesn't make sense in English. But in Japanese, they see the subject as obvious from the context of a conversation so there's no need to spell it out. In this case there is no conversation, so the most likely noun is "me". You will see unfinished sentences all the time, especially if you are actually talking to Japanese people versus studying it. You'll want to get good at infering meaning. Japanese don't like long winded explanations like this one. Hope this helps.
In fact, there is nothing wrong with each of sentences. But I can not know that these sentences have same meaning. Certainly if the table is in front me, I just say 'There is a table in front.' Because everybody knows the situation. I do not need to explain.
But how do I know the place where the table? Just by the sentence '前にテーブルがあります。'? What in front of?
I do not have supernatural power.
I ask all you. Somewhere in the U.K. or U.S.A. or so. There are a wife and a husband. She drinks coffee everyday. Does He say, 'Do you drink a cup of coffee?' every morning ? I assume that he maybe say 'coffee?'. She can understand he says meaning. She can understand He said to whom. Different?
Excuse me. I can not fully understand the sentences you wrote. My English skill is low. Especially, 'threw a loop'? Does that mean that you raise a problem?
I am studying English at Duolingo. Sometimes I see the following conversation.
"I can not understand the situation when this English sentence was used." "It depends on the context, this English sentence is grammatically correct. But the meaning will change depending on the sentences before and after." Is your opinion related to this?
I'm not sure how the Japanese context would apply, but "there is a table in front" would be an appropriate response to someone searching for a table, and being told where they could find one. It makes me think that the table is in front of something pretty obvious, like a house or a room. This is just one way I can think of that being used, I'm sure there are others. Perhaps that helps?
The way Duolingo is teaching us Japanese is to assume that any statement with no topic defaults to talking about ourselves.
Yup, not 私は because that's not valid for this sentence. Assume 私 maybe but not the particles after.
Is the form of the statement.
'I' is not a place. 'in front of' is, but is a fragment. In front of what?
'In front of me' is a place. Although we don't tend to think of it like that in English.
There is a table(A) in front of(B) me(C).
For people getting confused this can't mean 'I'm in front of a table' for the simple reason that it would end with います, not あります, other reasons need not be applied.
That would depend on the conjugation of the verb: "arimasu" is present or future tense, while "arimashita" is past. This interpretation is incorrect because "mae" acts as a noun here, and with the "ni" it becomes "in front of". A more complete sentence would be "Watashi no mae ni teeburu ga arimasu", but the "watashi" is implied and thus omitted. To say "There was a table", you would say "Teeburu ga arimashita". I have no Japanese keyboard so I hope you understand the romaji.
In this kind of sentence, you need to see where there is a の. Whatever is before the の is the thing that something is in front of. (Note how both の and "of" can be used to mark possession; you want to know "in whose front" (in front of whom) something is.)
Of course, in this specific example the "わたしの" was implied, which makes it trickier since you have to guess whose front it is but doesn't change the fact that it isn't the table's front.
It is not just a matter of が or は (although the general rule of thumb is that the former corresponds more often to "a" and the latter to "the") but also many other things, especially the verb. あります ("there is/are") is often used to introduce new things that haven't been mentioned before, and in such situations English tends to use "a", and Japanese が. In other situations, が can be used about things that are well-known and/or unique, and therefore merit an English "the", simply because they are not the immediate topic of discussion (maybe they were topic a few sentences ago).
No, it would just imply that the table was alive and animate.
(In the front position) (The table) (Exists - animate)
You would have to change the particles. The "front direction of" would belong to the table, not the speaker, and the speaker would be marked as the subject doing the existing.
テーブルの前に私がいます - (The table's front) (I) (exist)
That would be テーブルの前に私がいます [In front of the table] [I exist]
が marks the do-er or be-er of an action
の is used to link two nouns together, ～の前に describing what type of 'front' the location is. In the sentence above the pronoun is omitted and implied through context to be yourself. For clarification you could say 私の前に "In front of me", but in order to make it "In front of the table" you would have to link "front" with "table". テーブルの前に
います would be used when talking about yourself since your are an animate/living thing.
あります is used when describing the table because it is an inanimate object.
前にテーブルがあります [In front (of me)] [The table exists]
This has been discussed a few times above on this page already as well.
(私の) 前にテーブルがあります。(at my front a table exists)
Watashi no (my) was omitted because we already know the speaker is talking about themselves. So it became "in front there is a table"
If you want to say "I am in front of the table", you say: (私は)テーブルの前にいます。(as for me, I exist in front of the table) or テーブルの前に私がいます (at the table's front I exist)