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"I went to school, and then studied."


June 9, 2017



がっこうに行って、それからべんきょうしました Should be the answer


If you wrote it like that, って would mean something more like 'because' instead of consecutive actions.


Sorry, what? Granted, Japanese is extremely convoluted, and there are tons of uses for って, but I've never heard of it used like that! Could you post a link please?


The ~て form literally means "... and then...". All actions and states it connects are in continuous sequential order. For example:

朝ご飯を食べて、歯を磨いた。"I ate breakfast and (then) brushed my teeth."

Since て form signifies continuity, its meaning can be very close to ~から:

天気が悪くて、富士山が見えない。"The weather's bad and (so) Mt. Fuji cannot be seen."


Oh, I see. So in this case, the ~て form would be redundant because its purpose has already been fulfilled by the それから?


To be honest, it's the それから that feels redundant here. It's mainly used when you end your sentence but you still want to add something. So you simply begin a new sentence with それから... ("And then...").

Using it inside a compound sentence that's already connected through ~て is completely redundant, in my opinion.

And as AnaLydiate pointed out, それから by itself cannot connect two sentences with verbs into one compound sentence. It's simply a phrase, it doesn't have the ability to connects multiple sentences together like ~て has.


No, the ~て form is still necessary to make two sentences into one. Without it you would have two sentences.


But in this case, Te-form of 行き is still 行き, so ~て is redundant


I wrote 学校に行って、それから勉強しました (2021) and it was acceptable by duo... with that being said, there are really good points mentioned by @sakata_kintoki which worth noting.


The two forms [here: 行きand 行って] are both connectors, but are not interchangeable !!

I re-posted a video link that makes the distinction @7:45, describing a limitation on using the -masu stem, stating that the -masu stem connector is 'neutral' and the -て form is preferred when Clause A is the cause of Clause B (as hiba226886 said 3 years ago).

[repost] video help with --te and -- masu stem from www.satorireader.com

on youtube it is here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSrvay2Br8M&t=1s


Yes, dorkery is inaccurate, because usage and translated meaning vary


Both are correct tho...


Why not a past -te form connector instead? I get that 行き is a suspended form and works to continue into clause B, but 行って feels like it'd be the wrong tense. Could we say 学校に行った、それから勉強しました。?


@Kelaihc hello again! i edited my first response 2u below to include this video link.

video help with --te and -- masu stem from www.satorireader.com

on youtube it is here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSrvay2Br8M&t=1s

You wrote: " 行って feels like it'd be the wrong tense" but, as you know, technically the --te form "connector" takes on the tense of the conjugated verb.


I asked two Japanese people about this sentence. They both said it was correct but didn't immediately know how to explain. We had a lengthy discussion before reaching the conclusion that.. Normally それから is at the beginning of a sentence. So it would be like.. 学校に行きました。それから、勉強にしました。In this case, it's just been shortened to put them into one sentence, cutting out the ました and adding a comma. て form is for future actions.. 学校に行って、勉強にします


In this question it's one long string, but there's another one in the lesson that's Japanese to English with the same sentence, and it shows the comma between words like 学校に行き、それから勉強にしました。Hope I've helped someone. I was really curious about this myself lol.


Hi floristfawn, I'm sure it was just an innocent oversight but just wanted to point out that you have typed に between 勉強 and する in your examples. The に is unnecessary. 勉強する is a compound verb made up of the noun 勉強 and the verb する.


Very helpful, thanks!


As far as I know, て form is not just for future actions. It can be used to join sentences in past tense as well. The て form shows the sequence of events, so you can say 学校に行って、勉強しました。to mean 'I went to school and (then) studied'. But you are correct about それから normally starting a new sentence.


For the record I put 学校に行って、勉強しました and it was accepted.


There was no way to make 行って when i answered this


If you use the mobile or desktop website rather than the app, it's possible to type answers in yourself rather than selecting from the blocks. I highly recommend it, it's harder at first but you end up retaining the vocabulary so much better.


行きて is indeed a mistake. The te-form must be 行って in modern Japanese.


I am using it, but even if I write it with my keyboard, the form 行きて is considered a mistake by the system!


There's an option to switch to keyboard - this is something I've only recently become aware of thanks to commenters on here. It's possible that it's only available when you update the app or on your computer - I hadn't noticed it before the update.


Same here. Using て was (until now) the only way I knew how to form this kind of sentence. And it accepted my answer. As the poster above said, て isn't only for the future.


て form is also used to join actions that are related to each other And must be in logical sequence


行き here is what called a 連用中止形 ( suspended form ), and it is used mostly in writing.


In another Japanese sentence that came just after this one in my lesson, the te-form was used for past tense: まどをしめて、いえを出ました。 I understand that writing it without the て is acceptable, but why not just use the te-form? Isn’t it simpler? More linked?


I'm trying to understand why you think the te form is the past tense?


I think he meant - まどをしめて、いえを出ました is also in past tense, so why in this exercise, which is also in past tense, uses the Renyou-form 行き instead of the te-form.

The answer is that the renyou form 行き sounds more formal than the te=form 行って. Apart from that, they serve the same purpose of linking clauses together.


That was literally what I wrote


I am going to post this comment on almost every question. everyone needs to check out tae kims guide to japanese grammer. here is the link to the web version.


I am in no way affiliated with the sight. I heard about it in a duolingo comment way back. At first i was skeptical because both the website and the app look like shit aesthetically, but is way better than any of my texts books and free


I used Tae Kim's a long time ago, and posted the link in a comments section actually. It is very good, but also quite dull compared to Duo. It's more like studying in College than this fun little app. TK is definitely better at teaching though. As is Human Japanese, but that's not free.


In my opinion Human Japanese is much more friendly than Tae Kim which, as you point out, is quite dull. Well worth $ 10.


This is used in formal writing as Hiba said, but for many learners, I guess the て would be kinder. (But それから would disappear)


I'm still used to using the て form as the continuative form. XD


I agree that the て form should be used in this case. I think the sentence would flow more naturally too.


に(行き)それから this sounds wierd, no one speaks like this


No one does. This is used in writing only....


Just reported this question for this reason. Writing nuance only and has no place in this course.


My feeling is it's like saying, "Going to school, then I studied." That it's used mostly in writing only seems to confirm this.


I agree that this has no place here in this course and until they give us an 行って tile I am going to report it as "my answer should not have been accepted" every time I get this exercise.


I've been learning Japanese for quite a few years and I've never come across this "iki". I'd say in the context "itte kara". What IS this "iki" form a and precisely how is it used?


Japanese verbs are divided into 3 groups - ichidan, godan and irregular. ichidan verbs end in ~いる or ~える like 食べる and 見る. する and 来る are the only two irregular Japanese verbs. All other verbs fall in the godan group. Japanese verbs are made up of a stem, a base and an ending. The stem tells us the meaning of the verb ie. to eat, to talk, to swim. The base tells us the function of the verb or its form and allows certain endings to be added depending on the base. The ending tells us tense - past, present, present continuous etc, and voice - active or passive etc.行くis a godan verb. For godan verbs the stem is the first syllable or first two syllables - some examples わか from 分かる 行 from 行く,泳 from 泳ぐ, はな from 話す, も from 持つ, あ from 会う, 読 from 読む, 呼 from 呼ぶ to name a few. All verbs have 7 bases - the first 5 we can get from kana and kana order eg. か、き、く、け、こ are the first 5 bases for 行く. Each base has multiple potential uses - for example with stem + base 1 for 行く--->行か we add the endings ~ない or ~なかった to get 行かない and 行かなかった the negative present and negative past plain form of 行く. Stem + base 3 行く is the form of the verb which you will find in the dictionary form and hence why it is commonly referred to as the dictionary form. It is also the plain form present active of the verb. Stem + base 4 行け on its own is a very rude command form however when you add the polite ending ~ますーーー>行けます it becomes the present active potential of 行く meaning I can go. 行こう (stem + base 5) is the plain form of 行きましょう. As for stem + base 2 ---> 行き like stem + base 4 this has more than one application. I will use 話す to better illustrate this. Stem + base 2 on its own ---> はなし is a noun meaning talk or speech. Stem + base 2 can have the polite ending ~ます added to it to getーーー>はなします. You can use stem + base 2 to make verbs even MORE polite - おはなし します (honorific 'o' + stem + base 2 + する) or even more polite than that is おはなし いたします (honorific 'o' + stem + base 2 + humbler form of する). Stem + base 2 can also be used like a conjunction to join sentences as in the sentence discussed here - 学校に 行き、それから 勉強しました - I went to school and then (I) studied - similar to the way the te form is used. Bases 6 and 7 are -te and -ta and as with the other verb bases have their own various applications. I have been told that this is how Japanese children learn Japanese and how to conjugate verbs etc. I certainly think it is much easier, logical and straightforward than starting out with -masu, although I can see why high schools teach it that way.


I learnt the group forms as ichidan (one step), godan (five step) and irregular but it seems godan and yodan are essentially the same verbs we're referring to. However, yodan (as in 4 step, not youdan) is the old name referring to the classical conjugation of verbs (where base 5 didn't use an o sound) whereas godan is the modern name since modern Japanese uses 5 hiragana sounds for the bases (a for base 1, i for base 2, u for base 3, e for base 4 and o for base 5).


concerning @AnaLydiate's post :

It would be helpful to mention exceptions to the 2 basic divisions, such as, for ichidan verbs some familiar exceptions include: kaeru (帰る "return home"), hashiru (走る "run"), kiru (切る "cut"), iru (要る, "need"), and hairu (入る "enter").

For all interested, please see the following long list (and explanation) of exceptions to the ichidan verb group: http://www.jgram.org/pages/viewOne.php?tagE=Group+1+Verb+Exceptions


very helpful supplement ! but site is down... anyone have an alternative resource link for such exceptions?


Hi, I've seen you post this is a few times. This is exactly how I learned verb forms but that still doesn't explain to me why iki is just hanging out on it's own with no ending at all? I was given no option to use itte by Duolingo so I did my best with the words that were there but got it wrong and I'm still confused by this sentence...


Thank you very much!


This was an extremely helpful bird's eye/abstract view of the grammar. Thanks!


行って is still missing from word selection as of January 2019. Should definitely be there, even if there's option to use keyboard.

In my humble opinion, connecting two sentences using ren'youkei in what is essentially a beginner course is counter-intuitive, confusing and unnecessary. This is seldom used in day-to-day communication.


Why is it only iki not ikimasu


See above please.


Why is ました only used after the last verb? Is it ok to simply write 行き in the middle of the sentence?


The last verb sets the tense for the whole sentence. 行く is 行き because 行き and 行って are forms of the verb that act like conjunctions or rather these two verb endings act like conjunctions - ie. go and....


Contrary to most opinions here, the two forms [here: 行きand 行って] are both connectors, but are not interchangeable !!

I posted and re-posted a video link that makes the distinction @7:45, describing a limitation on using the -masu stem, stating that the -masu stem connector is 'neutral' and the -て form is preferred when Clause A is the cause of Clause B.

[repost] video help with --te and -- masu stem from www.satorireader.com

on youtube it is here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSrvay2Br8M&t=1s






how I learned it would be 学校へ行って、それから勉強しました


You can join two sentences together by changing a verb ending to either te form as in your example OR 行き as in the original sentence used here.


Instead of using それから, I used そして and it was marked as incorrect. My sentence looked like this:


Is this normally correct or is there something I haven’t noticed ?


You sentence should be correct.


Why do you need the し beforeました?


勉強 by itself is not a verb, per say, so it needs する to turn it into one.




is it correct to use "学校に行ってから、勉強しました" to express doing one action 'and then' another?


I used そして here instead of それから and it was incorrect. Is that a mistake?


Why is it " 学校に行き " and not " 学校に行きました " ? It is not explained at all !


Someone answered that same question for me earlier last week. Have a look at this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSrvay2Br8M It should help very clearly explain.

Just like the -te form is used as a connecting, tenseless verb for attaching clause A to clause B, you can do so with the stem of the verb.


Im sorry, dumb question here. What is the difference between そして and それから?


It is not dump question, rather an interesting one.

When you use それから, it means that the previous action has finished, and then continuously the following action starts. For そして, the previous action does not need to be finished in order for the next action to start, and the second action do not need to be done immediately after the first action.

Reference: https://nihongonosensei.net/?p=19188

  • 昨日は6時に起きました。そして夜10時に寝ました。 (Getting up at 6 and sleeping at 10 are two distinct actions.)
  • 昨日は6時に起きました。それから夜10時に寝ました。 (Unnatural because それから expects the two actions are done one after an other, but now these actions are far apart.)

  • 頭(あたま)の中で整理(せいり)して、そして話してください。 (Organize the thought in your head for a bit, then talk)

  • 頭の中で整理して、それから話してください。 (First completely organize the thought in your head, then talk)


Thank you very much for your explanation! If I got this right, basically そして is like "and", and それから is like a "then"...


@p1nkb34r I was ready to reply as you just did! but yesterday saw elaborate answer. Now, I just want to say thank you very much for your explanation! haha :)

本当に, 皆さんは日本語の勉強頑張っていますね!


The verb stem is sufficient in this case to delineate what occurred preceding the second clause.


行き (いき)is not actually the stem. The 行 from 行く is the stem and き is the base - base 2 in this instance.


Well... I didn't expect to get to 2nd base studying Japanese ;)


I've had teachers refer to the part of the verb which comes before ます as 'the masu stem'. It may not be the way you learnt Japanese, or how Japanese people learn it themselves, but it seems to be a common way of explaining things especially when students have learnt the ます form first. I understand what you're saying and it is technically correct since the stem is not supposed to change, but it seems referring to 行き as the masu stem is the way a lot of people have been taught (including me).


I think the way Japanese people learn Japanese is so much simpler and straightforward compared to the way Japanese is taught it schools. However, I can understand why it is taught that way - if schools taught it in the simple and logical way that Japanese people learn it students would easily and quickly learn Japanese and then what would teachers teach in Japanese classes for the remainder of the high school years? ; )


Haha. I think you just offered to teach my Year 8 classes for me. I reckon they would defy your expectation that they’d learn easily and quickly :P

I have to admit I have never experienced how Japanese kids/students learn their own language as I’ve only ever learnt and taught it as a foreign language. Though I’m not surprised that it’s efficient and logical


It's all about mentality. I studied Japanese in high school. I didn't think it was easy or fun. Even though I knew that it was a living, breathing language I always thought of it as a subject like maths or english. When I "came back" to Japanese post Uni I was taught with a completely different mentality - compared with English (and other languages) Japanese is EASY. It is regular and consistent. It has rules and it sticks to them. There are only TWO irregular verbs - all the rest follow a pattern. There are only five consistent vowel sounds. No cases, no declensions, no nominative, vocative, accusative or fem., masc., neut. or (for the most part) singular and plural. Also I think approaching Japanese as a living, breathing language that real people use every day to live rather than just thinking of it as just another subject that you will never have a real world application for helps. As for kana - that's easily sorted with regular daily reading and writing, and kanji is beautiful and fascinating.


Completely agree Ana. I’ve said this all to my students. The challenge is changing their mentality. I can relate as well since I started learning Japanese in high school only because it there was no other option. I just thought of it like any other subject but I was encouraged by my teacher, who saw my potential (or maybe she was just being nice haha). Either way, it was only after that that I really got into the language and culture.


Yes, they think it is supposed to be hard so it is. The language is presented as foreign and difficult and so it becomes that for them. Also, because it is hard they are not having fun. People generally don't enjoy things that aren't fun, they find them difficult and struggle. What a difference mindset makes!


Your wrong. The verb stem is what comes before -ます. Adjective stems are what comes before い or な.

行くis what's known as present plain form, not the stem.



Sure would be nice if I could edit my comments.


i - is the stem of the verb iku, ku is base 3 of the verb iku. Each verb base has a different function or meaning - sometimes a base has multiple functions eg. ike (stem + base 4) on its own ike is a very rude command form which you would never ever use but if you add -masu to the end --> ikemasu it means I can go. I never said that iku is the stem.


Yes, that it was I referring to. Thank you for the clarification for others :D


Iki is the stem and iku is the dictionary form. This is basics for me. I honestly never heard of -u form of a verb called 'the stem'. Did you stumble upon that in some textbook ?


The u is not the stem. I did not say that. Please read my explanation again.


This question (the version of selecting boxes) is asking for a comma that is not presented in the options.


Can anyone tell me anything wrong with my answer? Thanks. 私は学校に行きました、そして勉強しました。


It's incorrect in this particular instance because Duo is teaching us how verb endings can be changed to mimic the function of a conjunction and join two sentences together. In your example you have used an actual conjunction and that is not what Duo is trying to show us here. If however, Duo was trying to teach us about conjunctions then your example would be correct.


Thanks, I think I can see your point.


I would have put a full stop (or 'period' in American English?) rather than a comma in your example. I'm pretty sure that そして can only ever begin a sentence. (Someone can correct me if I'm mistaken). Eg 私は学校に行きました。そして、勉強しました。

Probably the main reason it was marked wrong is what Ana has said, but also Duolingo has not entered every possible correct answer with all synonyms and grammar structures. At least not yet anyway.


Well, that sounds to me as if your going to school and your studying are totally unrelated: "I went to school, and I studied". You need some construction which shows that your studying is a consequence of your going to school.


Do you mean that two sentences linked with そして sound like no connection between them?


hhhm, I am a bit confused about this. We have two verbs in this sentence. both are in the simple past, but only the last verb get´s the shi mashta ending. You can´t say gakko ni ikimashta, sorekara benkyo o shimashta?


That would be two separate sentences. i.e. "I went to school. And then I studied." To connect them in one sentence, you conjugate the first verb to the て-form. Whatever is at the end of the second verb, in this case ました, then applies to the sentence as a whole and not just the verb it's attached to.


行く is not an irregular verb. Japanese verbs are divided into 3 groups - ichidan typically ending in -iru and -eru, although there are some exceptions like 帰る, godan - most Japanese verbs fit in this group and 行く belongs to this group and then there are only TWO irregular verbs in Japanese and these are する and 来る.


There are more than two:

If 行く was regular it would be conjugated in て-form as 行いて rather than than the actual 行って. Not that it matters because I didn't know about the second way of joining sentences and so have removed the incorrect guess from my original comment.


Ha! I hadn't noticed that about 行くbefore - you are right! It should conjugate like 歩くーー> 歩いて I assure you however, that aside from this little exception 行く conjugates normally as any other godan verb. する and 来る are considered irregular because they do not conjugate like any other verb - you just have to memorise them.


Thanks Liam and Analydiate! It´s clear now. I understand thanks to you two.


Glad to help : )


Liam - there are two ways to change the ending of Japanese verbs so that they act like the conjunction 'and' and can join sentences together - one is by using the -te form of verbs which for 行く would be 行って, the other way is the verb stem plus base 2 or 行き as used in this sentence. You can also form verb derived nouns in this way - 話します (はなします)---> 話 (はなし)


If you did that kkaheltje then it would be two separate sentences. Duo is teaching you one of the ways to change the ending of a verb so that it acts like the conjunction 'and' and join two sentences together.


Can we also use 後?



学校に行った後 、勉強した. "After going to school, I studied." Usually no で here.


Was taught to join two sentences in the same tense like this with the -te form of the verb. There seems to be little explanation as to why ikimasu doesn't have a verb ending here and there was no option to click itte or even use two sentences like "ikimashita. sorekara, ..." Read through other comments but still a little confused...


2020-07-01. My answer was marked as wrong: 学校へ行って、それから勉強しました。


学校 に 行きって、それから べきょうしました。


So why not 行った as a part -te form connector? 行き on its own feels off, though I understand why it's used thanks to the comments so far. And 行ってdoesn't feel like it's in the right tense. Could it not be 学校に行った、そして/それから勉強しました。?


@Kelaihc, as you said, 行って is the connector and you also wrote about the "-te form connector", so i assume you must also know about the grammatical function of 行った ...

Additionally, to correct your "feeling" on this one, think of this: If you hear spoken Japanese at length, you constantly hear --て and --って rhythmically breaking up the communication of ideas/sentence parts, i.e. it feels very natural (after getting used to it, ironic but true)

video help with --te and -- masu stem from www.satorireader.com https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSrvay2Br8M&t=1s


That video and your explanation were incredibly helpful. Thanks for getting back to me so quickly! Makes more sense now I'm not trying to interpret and making assumptions.


学校に行くis not accepted


I read the comments and i got confused since the language is too high class. Can anyone simplifies the reason why it doesn't use て?


video help with --te and -- masu stem from www.satorireader.com

on youtube it is here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSrvay2Br8M&t=1s


What does して means?


Can anyone tell me why is it "がっこうに行き" but not "学校へ行き"? From what I remember the act of going/coming to ___ using 行く、来る、and 帰る would need "へ" articles. And に was an article for time it was done?


に can mark the destination, time or target. For 行く, 来る and 帰る both に and へ can be used to mark the destination.


I agree with dorkery, because that is what is in the lesson.


it cannot be it, because of the differing signification of the two different connecting forms of the verb -- see marti_MG posting and video copy/paste

@7:45 ... video help with --te and -- masu stem from www.satorireader.com

on youtube it is here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSrvay2Br8M&t=1s


In the previous time, i can use 行きました, now it can't. Duolingo, give the damn explanation. Don't just make other people explain for you


And then also translated as そして and it is wrong. Duolingo seriously. Add explanation features. Don't make your user explain for others. This is part of your responsibility as a provider of this kind of apps


Should be soshitara, not sorekara. Sorry I don't think I know how to explain it - just a feeling for what would be the correct way to say it.


I feel more natural to use それから. そしたら has a subtle cause-effect relationship between the two sentences. それから is more a chronological order of events. In this sentence it is more like saying the sequence of events than the effect of events (Going to scool does not result in studying, but rather is "and then" relationship).


I can see that.


たら form + past tense at the end of the sentence means the speaker is conveying his / her surprise. Otherwise, if there is no past tense indicated at the end , たら form functions instead as "if / when".


You are talking about verbs though. そしたら is not a verb.

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