"I went to school, and then studied."
I asked two Japanese people about this sentence. They both said it was correct but didn't immediately know how to explain. We had a lengthy discussion before reaching the conclusion that.. Normally それから is at the beginning of a sentence. So it would be like.. 学校に行きました。それから、勉強にしました。In this case, it's just been shortened to put them into one sentence, cutting out the ました and adding a comma. て form is for future actions.. 学校に行って、勉強にします
In this question it's one long string, but there's another one in the lesson that's Japanese to English with the same sentence, and it shows the comma between words like 学校に行き、それから勉強にしました。Hope I've helped someone. I was really curious about this myself lol.
Hi floristfawn, I'm sure it was just an innocent oversight but just wanted to point out that you have typed に between 勉強 and する in your examples. The に is unnecessary. 勉強する is a compound verb made up of the noun 勉強 and the verb する.
As far as I know, て form is not just for future actions. It can be used to join sentences in past tense as well. The て form shows the sequence of events, so you can say 学校に行って、勉強しました。to mean 'I went to school and (then) studied'. But you are correct about それから normally starting a new sentence.
If you use the mobile or desktop website rather than the app, it's possible to type answers in yourself rather than selecting from the blocks. I highly recommend it, it's harder at first but you end up retaining the vocabulary so much better.
I am using it, but even if I write it with my keyboard, the form 行きて is considered a mistake by the system!
There's an option to switch to keyboard - this is something I've only recently become aware of thanks to commenters on here. It's possible that it's only available when you update the app or on your computer - I hadn't noticed it before the update.
Same here. Using て was (until now) the only way I knew how to form this kind of sentence. And it accepted my answer. As the poster above said, て isn't only for the future.
て form is also used to join actions that are related to each other And must be in logical sequence
I am going to post this comment on almost every question. everyone needs to check out tae kims guide to japanese grammer. here is the link to the web version.
I am in no way affiliated with the sight. I heard about it in a duolingo comment way back. At first i was skeptical because both the website and the app look like ❤❤❤❤ aesthetically, but is way better than any of my texts books and free
I used Tae Kim's a long time ago, and posted the link in a comments section actually. It is very good, but also quite dull compared to Duo. It's more like studying in College than this fun little app. TK is definitely better at teaching though. As is Human Japanese, but that's not free.
In my opinion Human Japanese is much more friendly than Tae Kim which, as you point out, is quite dull. Well worth $ 10.
In another Japanese sentence that came just after this one in my lesson, the te-form was used for past tense: まどをしめて、いえを出ました。 I understand that writing it without the て is acceptable, but why not just use the te-form? Isn’t it simpler? More linked?
I think he meant - まどをしめて、いえを出ました is also in past tense, so why in this exercise, which is also in past tense, uses the Renyou-form 行き instead of the te-form.
The answer is that the renyou form 行き sounds more formal than the te=form 行って. Apart from that, they serve the same purpose of linking clauses together.
If you wrote it like that, って would mean something more like 'because' instead of consecutive actions.
Sorry, what? Granted, Japanese is extremely convoluted, and there are tons of uses for って, but I've never heard of it used like that! Could you post a link please?
The ~て form literally means "... and then...". All actions and states it connects are in continuous sequential order. For example:
朝ご飯を食べて、歯を磨いた。"I ate breakfast and (then) brushed my teeth."
Since て form signifies continuity, its meaning can be very close to ～から:
天気が悪くて、富士山が見えない。"The weather's bad and (so) Mt. Fuji cannot be seen."
Oh, I see. So in this case, the ~て form would be redundant because its purpose has already been fulfilled by the それから?
To be honest, it's the それから that feels redundant here. It's mainly used when you end your sentence but you still want to add something. So you simply begin a new sentence with それから... ("And then...").
Using it inside a compound sentence that's already connected through ～て is completely redundant, in my opinion.
And as AnaLydiate pointed out, それから by itself cannot connect two sentences with verbs into one compound sentence. It's simply a phrase, it doesn't have the ability to connects multiple sentences together like ～て has.
No, the ~て form is still necessary to make two sentences into one. Without it you would have two sentences.
I agree that the て form should be used in this case. I think the sentence would flow more naturally too.
This is used in formal writing as Hiba said, but for many learners, I guess the て would be kinder. (But それから would disappear)
Just reported this question for this reason. Writing nuance only and has no place in this course.
My feeling is it's like saying, "Going to school, then I studied." That it's used mostly in writing only seems to confirm this.
I've been learning Japanese for quite a few years and I've never come across this "iki". I'd say in the context "itte kara". What IS this "iki" form a and precisely how is it used?
Japanese verbs are divided into 3 groups - ichidan, godan and irregular. ichidan verbs end in ～いる or ～える like 食べる and 見る. する and 来る are the only two irregular Japanese verbs. All other verbs fall in the godan group. Japanese verbs are made up of a stem, a base and an ending. The stem tells us the meaning of the verb ie. to eat, to talk, to swim. The base tells us the function of the verb or its form and allows certain endings to be added depending on the base. The ending tells us tense - past, present, present continuous etc, and voice - active or passive etc.行くis a godan verb. For godan verbs the stem is the first syllable or first two syllables - some examples わか from 分かる 行 from 行く,泳 from 泳ぐ, はな from 話す, も from 持つ, あ from 会う, 読 from 読む, 呼 from 呼ぶ to name a few. All verbs have 7 bases - the first 5 we can get from kana and kana order eg. か、き、く、け、こ are the first 5 bases for 行く. Each base has multiple potential uses - for example with stem + base 1 for 行く--->行か we add the endings ~ない or ~なかった to get 行かない and 行かなかった the negative present and negative past plain form of 行く. Stem + base 3 行く is the form of the verb which you will find in the dictionary form and hence why it is commonly referred to as the dictionary form. It is also the plain form present active of the verb. Stem + base 4 行け on its own is a very rude command form however when you add the polite ending ～ますーーー>行けます it becomes the present active potential of 行く meaning I can go. 行こう (stem + base 5) is the plain form of 行きましょう. As for stem + base 2 ---> 行き like stem + base 4 this has more than one application. I will use 話す to better illustrate this. Stem + base 2 on its own ---> はなし is a noun meaning talk or speech. Stem + base 2 can have the polite ending ～ます added to it to getーーー＞はなします. You can use stem + base 2 to make verbs even MORE polite - おはなし します (honorific 'o' + stem + base 2 + する) or even more polite than that is おはなし いたします (honorific 'o' + stem + base 2 + humbler form of する). Stem + base 2 can also be used like a conjunction to join sentences as in the sentence discussed here - 学校に 行き、それから 勉強しました - I went to school and then (I) studied - similar to the way the te form is used. Bases 6 and 7 are -te and -ta and as with the other verb bases have their own various applications. I have been told that this is how Japanese children learn Japanese and how to conjugate verbs etc. I certainly think it is much easier, logical and straightforward than starting out with -masu, although I can see why high schools teach it that way.
I learnt the group forms as ichidan (one step), godan (five step) and irregular but it seems godan and yodan are essentially the same verbs we're referring to. However, yodan (as in 4 step, not youdan) is the old name referring to the classical conjugation of verbs (where base 5 didn't use an o sound) whereas godan is the modern name since modern Japanese uses 5 hiragana sounds for the bases (a for base 1, i for base 2, u for base 3, e for base 4 and o for base 5).
This was an extremely helpful bird's eye/abstract view of the grammar. Thanks!
Why is ました only used after the last verb? Is it ok to simply write 行き in the middle of the sentence?
The last verb sets the tense for the whole sentence. 行く is 行き because 行き and 行って are forms of the verb that act like conjunctions or rather these two verb endings act like conjunctions - ie. go and....
Should be soshitara, not sorekara. Sorry I don't think I know how to explain it - just a feeling for what would be the correct way to say it.
I feel more natural to use それから. そしたら has a subtle cause-effect relationship between the two sentences. それから is more a chronological order of events. In this sentence it is more like saying the sequence of events than the effect of events (Going to scool does not result in studying, but rather is "and then" relationship).
たら form + past tense at the end of the sentence means the speaker is conveying his / her surprise. Otherwise, if there is no past tense indicated at the end , たら form functions instead as "if / when".
行き （いき）is not actually the stem. The 行 from 行く is the stem and き is the base - base 2 in this instance.
I've had teachers refer to the part of the verb which comes before ます as 'the masu stem'. It may not be the way you learnt Japanese, or how Japanese people learn it themselves, but it seems to be a common way of explaining things especially when students have learnt the ます form first. I understand what you're saying and it is technically correct since the stem is not supposed to change, but it seems referring to 行き as the masu stem is the way a lot of people have been taught (including me).
I think the way Japanese people learn Japanese is so much simpler and straightforward compared to the way Japanese is taught it schools. However, I can understand why it is taught that way - if schools taught it in the simple and logical way that Japanese people learn it students would easily and quickly learn Japanese and then what would teachers teach in Japanese classes for the remainder of the high school years? ; )
Haha. I think you just offered to teach my Year 8 classes for me. I reckon they would defy your expectation that they’d learn easily and quickly :P
I have to admit I have never experienced how Japanese kids/students learn their own language as I’ve only ever learnt and taught it as a foreign language. Though I’m not surprised that it’s efficient and logical
It's all about mentality. I studied Japanese in high school. I didn't think it was easy or fun. Even though I knew that it was a living, breathing language I always thought of it as a subject like maths or english. When I "came back" to Japanese post Uni I was taught with a completely different mentality - compared with English (and other languages) Japanese is EASY. It is regular and consistent. It has rules and it sticks to them. There are only TWO irregular verbs - all the rest follow a pattern. There are only five consistent vowel sounds. No cases, no declensions, no nominative, vocative, accusative or fem., masc., neut. or (for the most part) singular and plural. Also I think approaching Japanese as a living, breathing language that real people use every day to live rather than just thinking of it as just another subject that you will never have a real world application for helps. As for kana - that's easily sorted with regular daily reading and writing, and kanji is beautiful and fascinating.
Completely agree Ana. I’ve said this all to my students. The challenge is changing their mentality. I can relate as well since I started learning Japanese in high school only because it there was no other option. I just thought of it like any other subject but I was encouraged by my teacher, who saw my potential (or maybe she was just being nice haha). Either way, it was only after that that I really got into the language and culture.
Yes, they think it is supposed to be hard so it is. The language is presented as foreign and difficult and so it becomes that for them. Also, because it is hard they are not having fun. People generally don't enjoy things that aren't fun, they find them difficult and struggle. What a difference mindset makes!
Your wrong. The verb stem is what comes before -ます. Adjective stems are what comes before い or な.
行くis what's known as present plain form, not the stem.
i - is the stem of the verb iku, ku is base 3 of the verb iku. Each verb base has a different function or meaning - sometimes a base has multiple functions eg. ike (stem + base 4) on its own ike is a very rude command form which you would never ever use but if you add -masu to the end --> ikemasu it means I can go. I never said that iku is the stem.
Iki is the stem and iku is the dictionary form. This is basics for me. I honestly never heard of -u form of a verb called 'the stem'. Did you stumble upon that in some textbook ?
The u is not the stem. I did not say that. Please read my explanation again.
This question (the version of selecting boxes) is asking for a comma that is not presented in the options.
Can anyone tell me anything wrong with my answer? Thanks. 私は学校に行きました、そして勉強しました。
Well, that sounds to me as if your going to school and your studying are totally unrelated: "I went to school, and I studied". You need some construction which shows that your studying is a consequence of your going to school.
Do you mean that two sentences linked with そして sound like no connection between them?
It's incorrect in this particular instance because Duo is teaching us how verb endings can be changed to mimic the function of a conjunction and join two sentences together. In your example you have used an actual conjunction and that is not what Duo is trying to show us here. If however, Duo was trying to teach us about conjunctions then your example would be correct.
I would have put a full stop (or 'period' in American English?) rather than a comma in your example. I'm pretty sure that そして can only ever begin a sentence. (Someone can correct me if I'm mistaken). Eg 私は学校に行きました。そして、勉強しました。
Probably the main reason it was marked wrong is what Ana has said, but also Duolingo has not entered every possible correct answer with all synonyms and grammar structures. At least not yet anyway.
hhhm, I am a bit confused about this. We have two verbs in this sentence. both are in the simple past, but only the last verb get´s the shi mashta ending. You can´t say gakko ni ikimashta, sorekara benkyo o shimashta?
That would be two separate sentences. i.e. "I went to school. And then I studied." To connect them in one sentence, you conjugate the first verb to the て-form. Whatever is at the end of the second verb, in this case ました, then applies to the sentence as a whole and not just the verb it's attached to.
行く is not an irregular verb. Japanese verbs are divided into 3 groups - ichidan typically ending in -iru and -eru, although there are some exceptions like 帰る, godan - most Japanese verbs fit in this group and 行く belongs to this group and then there are only TWO irregular verbs in Japanese and these are する and 来る.
There are more than two:
If 行く was regular it would be conjugated in て-form as 行いて rather than than the actual 行って. Not that it matters because I didn't know about the second way of joining sentences and so have removed the incorrect guess from my original comment.
Ha! I hadn't noticed that about 行くbefore - you are right! It should conjugate like 歩くーー＞ 歩いて I assure you however, that aside from this little exception 行く conjugates normally as any other godan verb. する and 来る are considered irregular because they do not conjugate like any other verb - you just have to memorise them.
Liam - there are two ways to change the ending of Japanese verbs so that they act like the conjunction 'and' and can join sentences together - one is by using the -te form of verbs which for 行く would be 行って, the other way is the verb stem plus base 2 or 行き as used in this sentence. You can also form verb derived nouns in this way - 話します （はなします）---> 話 （はなし）
If you did that kkaheltje then it would be two separate sentences. Duo is teaching you one of the ways to change the ending of a verb so that it acts like the conjunction 'and' and join two sentences together.
You can join two sentences together by changing a verb ending to either te form as in your example OR 行き as in the original sentence used here.
I put 学校に行き、それから勉強しました and it worked. I think you could do it with the それから removed as well.
行って is still missing from word selection as of January 2019. Should definitely be there, even if there's option to use keyboard.
In my humble opinion, connecting two sentences using ren'youkei in what is essentially a beginner course is counter-intuitive, confusing and unnecessary. This is seldom used in day-to-day communication.