наша и них
This is really difficult to learn: наша и них. The H in both words!
For 2nd plural it's вы, вас... and it's as in french, "vous", starting with a V. For 1st plural it's мы, нас, нам... наша... and it too is as in french, "nous", starting with a N basically. For 3rd plural it's они, их, им... and it's sort of follows logically too. Starting with a vowel, и, as in - well - "eux".
But the word них is difficult every time, I don't know how many times I've tried to assign it to 1st person plural. The H messes things up for me.
Yes, I know this. I have no idea why the "v" and "n" has changed places here. "vi" - "nous" - "мы, нас, нам... наша..." and on the other hand "ni" - "vous" - "вы, вас..." :)
I checked the origin of the "n" in my language's [Swedish] word for "you", since you mention it, and that is the word "ni" and it's originally from a simple contraction of a verb and a pronoun, in olden times the verb had a grammatical conjunction in 1st person plural the ending -en as in "skolen" + "i" ("shall you") and the "n" moved over from the verb and concatenated with the "i", the conjunction was dropped over the centuries, and the pronoun became "ni" instead of "i". The original "i" is the same as in "Ihr" or "Ye"/"you". The word "vi" is from sanskrit, "vay-am", compare English "we". [Source: http://runeberg.org/svetym/]
Actually, if you are thinking about possessive pronouns, 3rd plural is их:
masculine forms: 1st pl.: наш стол ; 2n pl. ваш стол; 3rd pl. их стол.
Них is an indirect pronoun form, along with их; the usage of these pronouns is largely irregular: after some prepositions н is required, after some other prepositions it is optional, and after the rest of them it must not be used.
You confused because those are different words - mine and they.
Наша, наше, наш, наши - from "mine" look up here Plural personal pronouns http://www.russianlessons.net/grammar/pronouns.php
Них - from "they" look up here http://www.russisch-fuer-kinder.de/de_start/schule/texte.php?auswahl=mestoimenija_sklonenija
Attention!!! He. she, they used with "H" after pretext BUT without "H" if pretext wasn't used. Местоимения ОН, ОНА, ОНО употребляются с "H" после предлогов, например: вместе С НИМ, С НЕЙ НО горжусь ИМ, ЕЙ
Thank you. The last sentence I had to run through "Google translate" however, it was too difficult for me to read in the original.
Other words that are confusing (to me that is) are for example сам, от, так but that's in all likelihood that they're similar to my language's "(en)sam", "åt", "tack" (alone, toward, thanks).
I'm also constantly mixing up миска и масла for some reason... to me they sound a bit similar. This is much harder than I thought.
Местоимения ОН, ОНА, ОНО употребляются с "H" после предлогов, например: вместе С НИМ, С НЕЙ
This is actually, not quite right. Н is required after many prepositions, but not after all of them. As I said earlier, after some prepositions н is optional, and after some prepositions it must not be used.
Просмотрела всю грамматику по русскому, и на 4-х сайтах не нашла упоминания о том, что есть исключения из этого правила. Перебрала мысленно словосочетания... и все время после предлога употребляется с "Н". Пожалуйста укажите ссылку, где можно посмотреть исключения, любопытства ради.
BTW, предлог в грамматическом смысле - это preposition, а pretext - это предлог в смысле повод.