Translation:Where are your parents?
update Oct. 9, 2017
'ご' + 'りょうしん' is more polite than 'りょうしん'.
This 'go' is as same as 'o' what are 'o hana' (more polite than hana), 'o niisan(more polite than niisan)'.
@N1chope Thank you!
'ご' + 'りょうしん' is polite than 'りょうしん'.
This 'go' is as same as 'o' what are 'o hana' (politer than hana), 'o niisan(polite than niisan)'.
@gerillamarketing Thank you ! I did update. （＾∇＾）
@gerillamarketing second update thank you!
This 'go' is as same as 'o' what are 'o hana' (politer than hana), 'o niisan(politer than niisan)'.
This what I found and from memory is correct; Kanji (Chinese characters) have two different readings – the onyomi and the kunyomi. Theonyomi is closer to the original Chinese language and is mostly used for nouns. One Kanji can have more than one onyomi. Thekunyomi reading is used to show the traditional Japanese pronunciation.
For additional context and if you didn't already know, kanji is originally from China and introduced to Japan. Obviously it evolved from there and I highly recommend looking up the history if that sort of thing interests you as I find it facinating :)
There's a free app on the Google Play store (don't know about Apple) by a guy named Tae Kim who goes through several basic lessons to give a foundational understanding of Japanese... in it he covers on'yomi and kun'yomi, among other things you won't be explicitly told by Duolingo: goo.gl/6kM6wC
I highly recommend it
To add to what remeiil said: On'yomi is usually translated as the Sino-Japanese reading (/or pronunciation) of a kanji (Chinese character), and Kun'yomi, as the Japanese (or native) reading / pronunciation. They are sometimes simply called On and Kun. "Yomi" (from the stem of the verb to read) refers to the yomikata, the way to read something.
Kun readings are used for most non-compounded basic words written with kanji, and also for the majority of Japanese compound family and place names. Most other compound words, particularly those with more academic or 'elevated' meanings, tend to use On readings, much as many such words in English are based on Latin or Greek roots.
Many On readings are monosyllabic, including many ending in ん, or the long vowels, ei, ou, or uu. Most compounds are generally all On, or all Kun, although there are exceptions, such as the word On'yomi. Visually, words that have inflectional endings written in hiragana, called okurigana (but NOT する), are almost always read with Kun.
The On & Kun readings for each kanji don't sound like each other at all, because Japanese and Chinese come from unrelated language families, with very different phonological systems, word formation, & grammar. Modern Japanese On readings only sometimes sound very much like modern Chinese pronunciations of a character.
In J & E kanji dictionaries, individual On readings are often written in katakana or all capitals, though this convention is not usually followed when whole words are transcribed. Some kun/ON: 人 ひと / ジン, ニン:日本人にほんじん; 山 やま/ サン；水 みず/ スイ; 月 つき/ ゲツ
TL;DR The basic idea is that kun'yomi are "Japanese" pronunciations of kanji while on'yomi are the "Chinese" pronunciations.
In depth explanation: This article does a great job of explaining on'yomi and kun'yomi - https://www.tofugu.com/japanese/onyomi-kunyomi/
For example, 中国 (read ちゅごく or chūgoku) means China. The kanji 中 is pronounced ちゅ (chu). This is the on'yomi for this kanji.
田中 (read たなか or tanaka) means Tanaka, which is a name for a person (like Kimberly or Joshua). The kanji 中 is pronounced なか (naka) in this case. This is the kun'yomi for this kanji.
Thus the kanji 中 has multiple pronunciations.
In Japanese, honorific forms, such as the prefixes go- and o- (also certain verb forms and lexical choices) are often used where in English we would use pronouns. They show respect or politeness towards the person being addressed, others associated with that person, or sometimes third parties. They are very often used instead of the pronouns you or your that English would require. Therefore, the proper English translation of the sentence should NOT simply be The Parents, but YOUR parents. If I wanted to know where you were from, I could similarly ask: go-shusshin wa doko desu ka.
Humble forms and word choices, by contrast, refer usually to oneself or those associated with oneself vis a vis someone to whom respect should be shown, most often the person one is speaking to or those associated with him/her.
This personal use of o or go should not be confused with the simply customary and basically fixed use when they are attached to certain objects, such as o-cha or go-han, in which no possession or relationship of personal respect is implied.
「ごりょうしん は どこですか？」（御両親は どこですか）
I translate this sentence to 'Where are your parents?' not 'my/our parents'. Because there are 'ご’. typically we do not use 'ごりょうしん' about our family when talk to person who are not our family.
I want to say 'Where are my/our parents?', I use 'りょうしん は どこですか' .
Of course it depends on the situation.
There's an underlying reason behind Keith's explanation that は precedes a question word and/or が follows it. はin its role as the topic particle (/postposition) deemphasizes what precedes it as background information and shifts the focus to the new information in the following 'comment.' は can similarly replace を.
If I try to simulate the topic-comment structure in English, perhaps you can see why parents can be followed by は, but not a question word. Talking about my parents(は), where are they? Talking about where (は), my parents are????
Also, don't forget that in the proper context, question words can be followed by other possible particles: どこで / に / へ; なにを....
Right, when I type that in google translate, it is indeed coming out as "hospital." I can't think of how this can relate to it though.
But no, you searched the wrong thing. It is ごりょうしん (こ with extra " on the top right). It came out properly as "your parents" in google translate.
I believe it has been answered above but ご is an honorific like お (e.g. お元気ですか). Similar to how you wouldn't reply using the the honorific when talking about yourself, you would also not talk about your own parents using the ご honorific. I hope that helps. Basically りょうしん (両親) means parents (both of them) and ご is the honorific.