"He is my older brother."
Depends on the situation. If whoever you're speaking to knows who you're talking about, then it's ok to omit it. If not, then omitting it would make you say "is my older brother", so if they don't know who you're talking about, then that wouldn't make much sense.
Yes, it is actually recommended if you omit since japanese is a very contextual language.
You can if the subject is established. You can also remove the 'watashi no' as ani means your referring to your brother anc nit someone elses.
I learned that it is "oniisan" when reffering to somone else's brother. It can also be one way to refer to one's own older brother while directly speaking to them.
Nor exactly. When you are young, you can call older people (not too old though) Onii-san.
Ani is usually for your brother. The only time it can be used for someone else is Aniki in a yakuza context.
Your elder is your Aniki. Though you don't say that in a normal context :)
Yes there is significance. It's like saying "my he is brother". かれ is the topic so we write かれは (wa is a topic marker) indicating that we are talking about a someone in third person. 私の is my in this case. 私の兄 (watashi no ani) is my brother. 私の猫 (watashi no neko) my cat. 田中さんの猫 (tanaka san no neko) Tanaka's cat.
I was reading in another book that if you put の after the subject it shows possession. So あねのです would translate to my older brother. Is this right?
I'm guessing no because です is not really a full verb but more of a copula and when you say あねの, what does the sister possess? It's like you were saying "My sister's I'm" in english. It doesn't make sense.
That said, take my comment with a grain of salt, because I'm also a beginner.
I did not use です and it was marked wrong, isn't it just an informal version?
です is the "it is" verb (I'm fairly sure). 「わたしはアメリカ人です」has the は after わたし, indicating that you're talking about yourself, and at the end is the です, indicating that "an American person" is the information that you were sharing.
Leaving です off would probably be somewhat akin to trying to write "I walk to school" but instead just writing "I to school". Sentences need verbs most of the time.
That being said, you're learning about the hardest language you could, so some mistakes and misunderstandings should be expected. Keep working at it, and if you can't figure something out, look for another resource. Think of Duo as your lesson plan; you can and should study outside of it.
Yes. Report it. Unless there is a reason Duo wants it to be formal, です is unnecessary.
why does it end in だ when I type it in without です, is です another way of just saying だ or am I brain dead, equally likely at this point.
In formal speech, you use です; in informal speech, you use だ after nouns and adjectives not ending in い (the character, not the sound).
The task I got just before this was to translate "Who is he?", so for this one it seemed natural to answer with just " あにです " which was accepted. Would this be normal or could " あに " still be slightly ambiguous?
兄 can be pronounced as あに or にい, is just that あにさん it's a little bit more formal and in the case of family you would only use it when you are distant from your brother. In this sentence though, the person is not speaking with his brother, in that case あに doesn't sound strange because after all, you are talking about your older brother in front of another person.
Tried omitting, but it failed it. Reported it because we don't know if context is known. It might be.
https://monosnap.com/file/xRepwZQiNMowT3Yquyom9OZifj4oII Is it a bug or I just don't understand something?
I believe it also said "わたしは" instead of just "わたし" when I clicked on "わたし", i thought there was something wrong, clicked on "わたし" to remove it from the answer, and then clicked on it again to add it back and the second time it pronounced "わたし" correctly. But when I tried to submit I got this error.