"He is my older brother."
Here's how I think about these sentences:
- "He is my older brother" --> "He is the older brother of me". I break it down in a way that doesn't sound natural to me in English, but makes for better sentence structure in Japanese. Remeber, when you're learning a new language, you gotta turn off your English brain!!
- "He is the older brother of me" makes it easier to think about. We have HE (彼) + OLDER BROTHER (兄) + ME/I (私). Now we just need to add the right particles and such.
- We need to add は after 彼 (HE) because HE seems to be the focus of the sentence.
- We add の after 私 because that's what makes it possesive. 私の = MY. Personally, it is easier to think of it like this: Pronoun (in this case 私) + connect with/own/possess (の) + object (in this case 兄). So here wa have I + connect with/own/possess + my older brother. I say "connect" because you don't literally own your brother.
- we add です at the end to complete the sentence, and we're done!
So we have: 彼は私の兄です
Hope this helps! I am still learning, so PLEASE correct me if I make a mistake.
Just my opinion but try to break it down and you may be able to understand better. Their sentence structure almost always start with the topic first. So find and start the sentence with the topic followed by the subject.
彼女はshe 私のmy 姉さんsister ですis. 彼女は私の姉さんです. She is my older sister.
I don't usually think about it but repetition makes me familiar how it goes up to the point it comes out naturally or in other words it sounds natural. Similar on how I learned English grammar without learning the rules actually. Just sharing ny experience but don't give up. Itvs better if you get the hang of it instead of just memorizing. Memorizing makes you forget sometimes if it weren't for repetition. Just keeo on practicing. You can do it!
Yes there is significance. It's like saying "my he is brother". かれ is the topic so we write かれは (wa is a topic marker) indicating that we are talking about a someone in third person. 私の is my in this case. 私の兄 (watashi no ani) is my brother. 私の猫 (watashi no neko) my cat. 田中さんの猫 (tanaka san no neko) Tanaka's cat.
兄 can be pronounced as あに or にい, is just that あにさん it's a little bit more formal and in the case of family you would only use it when you are distant from your brother. In this sentence though, the person is not speaking with his brother, in that case あに doesn't sound strange because after all, you are talking about your older brother in front of another person.
In formal speech, you use です; in informal speech, you use だ after nouns and adjectives not ending in い (the character, not the sound).
I'm guessing no, because です is not really a full verb but more of a copula and when you say あねの, what does the sister possess? It's like you were saying "My sister's I'm" in English. It doesn't make sense in this particular context.
That said, take my comment with a grain of salt, because I'm also a beginner.
「(彼の私) は兄(です)」(His me) (is older brother) which doesn't makes sense
「(私の兄) 」my older brother 「(彼)は(私の兄)です」(He) (my older brother)
Hmmm have you tried re-reading the tips of previous lessons or re-doing the previous lessons to practice if you haven't touched in a while?
How I see it is:
think of 'no' as "belongs to", but swap the order around. So this apple belongs to him becomes 彼のリンゴ
'wa' sets the topic, so identify the topic in the sentence then put a 'wa' after it. The apple is red, apple is the topic, so (りんごは)赤いです. He likes apple, he is the topic so (彼は)リンゴが好きです.
She likes your yellow coat, she is the topic, the coat belongs to "you" so (彼女は)(あなたのコート)が好きです