"How much is that desk?"
この is used when object is close to speaker, meaning this.. その is used when object is close to listener, meaning that.. あの is used when object is close to neither parties, meaning that.. (over there)
これ means here (and now too it seems, though I have not learnt this meaning yet).
この means this
The demonstatives with ~re endings are basically nouns on their own. Or pronouns I suppose. So if the object you are talking about isn't being named then you would use are, kore, sore, or dare (dare is for asking which, since I dont think we have seen it yet). If you are specifying the item after then you would use ~no words, kono, ano, sono and dono.
In english the words this and that work in either case, as a noun or before a noun, but in Japanese those are two different words. ~re must be without a noun, ~no must be with.
Sono and kono are not really interchangeable, they are this and that in english, so the meanings have subtle difference in location of the item your talking about.
Words starting with ko~ words are near the speaker, like how in english you would use this and here (like this item I am holding here). So~ words are by the listener, like that or there in english (that thing you are holding there) and a~ words do not exist in english, we would still just use that, lol...but they are for things not close to either (that thing or place over there).
Hope that helps.
When you use the demonstrative together with a noun you must use the forms ending in -no. The ones ending in -re are used on their own.
Is there a difference between あの and その？ sounds like they're both correct in this sentence.
あの is used for when the object is far from both the speaker and the listener. その is for when the object is close to the listener, but not the speaker
To ask about "that desk", you need either ano or sono -- without them, it would be "the desk" (or possibly "a desk", depending on context).