"I get on the train."
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With 電車に乗ります, the hidden implied topic (and subject) of the sentence is us:
(私は)(私が)電車に乗ります - (As for me), (I) will get on/ride/take the train.
If you do 電車には(私が)乗ります, then you make the target that you're getting on - the train - into the topic (though the subject remains about us). And it might come out like:
As for the train, (I) will get on it.
So as you can see, the overall meaning of the sentence doesn't really change. The information you're communicating is still about you getting on the train.
But the emphasis changes and that can change which context it's more appropriate for.