"This television is low."
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A television could, I suppose, be short if it had odd dimensions. If the screen was very wide but little height, you might say it was short. As far as low, I agree it is basically meaningless in English. Maybe if the tv was on the floor and couldn't be viewed easily, but then I think you'd have to say that it's "too" low.
It can sometimes refer to the volume moreso than the TV itself, as a figure of speech called a synecdoche. If someone were to say that a TV is low, it's likely that the intended meaning is that the volume is low, similarly to how someone might say "Turn the TV down."
They wouldn't be telling you to literally point the TV downwards.
です can be dropped if the sentence ends in an い-adjective (which has a meaning of "is X" built into it already and can conjugate like a verb) to make the sentence more informal/casual
このテレビは低い is a grammatically fine casual sentence.
です or another copula is required if the sentence ends in a noun or な-adjective (which functions like a noun and requires a copula to conjugate)
For example 好き "like" is a な-adjective so a copula is needed. 犬が好きです "I like dogs" (polite)・犬が好きだ "I like dogs" (casual)
If dropping です with an い-adjective ending sentence isn't accepted on Duo you can report as "My answer should be accepted". Most of the older questions accept casual form already but some of the newer ones might not yet.
I'll register my common rant that my translation is not 'wrong' if I drop the 'この'. If I say テレビは低いです then it's implied that 'this' television is low. I get this wrong every time because I speak conversation Japanese and am like 'literally nobody cares if you have the 'この' or not... it's assumed knowledge that you're talking about the immediately visible TV.
If the sentence ends in an い-adjective, yes. い-adjectives function like verbs and can conjugate so the inclusion of です just makes it more polite.
If a sentence ends in a noun though (or a な-adjective which functions like a noun) some form of copula ( polite です or casual だ) is still required
I find it overall weird to introduce "low" in all of the statements I have found in this lesson. Sure, "the chair/table is low" makes sense in specific situations, as does "TV". It just feels off. Maybe it would've been better to put this word in the "House" or "Objects" section so we can practice telling someone "picture/mirror/something you'd mount on a wall or place on a shelf is (hanging) too low/high" or in some sort of hanging decorations scenario?