"I use a taxi."
Yes. We use both. "use" is つかいます, "ride" is のります. We use "use" and "ride" in the same way for both words
We can use 'use' instead of 'ride' like this conversation. "Which do you 'ride' a taxi or a train?" "I 'ride' the train, because it is punctual."
We think it means ride the car when we hear 'use the car'
The transitive/intransitive logic is pretty much similar in the sense that the combinations of verb and object are divided mainly into two categories.
- direct object + を + verb
- indirect object + some particle (に・で・へ, etc, even を) + verb
However, keep in mind that if a verb in transitive in English, it does not necessary mean that it is transitive in Japanese (and any other languages e.g. French, German, Chinese)