"Can I get that one?"
That's a little too extreme. You might just say that one cannot compare each language in the same way. Spanish has similarities to Italian because of shared Latin roots, but that doesn't mean that each of those languages have no similarities at all to, say, Japanese or Korean. Spanish and Japanese will have some comparable qualities since all humans are comparable in one way or another. And the same will go for every language on Earth. They can be compared, just not in the same way each time.
Some more concrete advice might be to keep working hard even though the differences are discouraging. Or in American terms, "Quit yer belly achin' and get to work!" :p
deixis: EN / JP proximal: this / こ (ko) medial: --- / そ (so) distal: that / あ (a)
Many languages feature the linguist category 'demonstratives' that some of their words fall into. Both English and Japanese are among such languages. Demonstratives communicate spatial deixis. With English, it's binary being proximal or distal, first person or not, 'this here' or 'that there', near me the speaker or not respectively. With Japanese, it's ternary, featuring the medial demonstrative as the third type. The medial demonstrative is like a additional 'that' which is second person meaning near you the addressee.
Wo (pronnounced o) is the noun particle. If you make an action that mabipulates the noun you use it. Like: I eat water would be: water o eat (verbs always come at the end of a sentance).
However, this is not the same as ga. Ga is used when "it just is". For example, if you like someone, you would say: ____ ga suki (desu). This is because you cant help who you like. Its for involuntary things like say if an earthquake broke a lamp.
I can try. Read from top to bottom. それ 'sore' means far from speaker but close to listener (I just assumed that is the case) を indicates that the object that 'sore' refers to is the object of the sentence ください。means 'please give' in a way So that would make 'please give me that [thing]'. As far as I understand there is no ka (か) in the end because technically this is no question, but a request. Please correct me if I am wrong, I just got it this way because of other comments explaining it.
So I think I'm getting this. Can someone double check me please?
を is a particle, which follows a noun, indicating that it is the object. In an admittedly broken example: I throw the ball (を). And わ/は is a particle which follows the subject. To repeat the broken example: I (わ) throw the ball (を) .... Am i understanding this right?