"There is one book on the bookshelf."

Translation:本が本だなに一さつあります。

6/11/2017, 2:55:21 AM

38 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Xyvyrianeth

I used the Kanji for さつ (冊) and it counted it wrong.

10/17/2017, 11:05:07 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/SalmaFawal
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私も。:(

11/18/2017, 11:33:51 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/GrandMoffTim
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Me too.

10/25/2017, 12:16:01 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/DerrickMcClure1

To say that GA indicates the indirect object in Japanese is categorically WRONG. GA indicates the subject. In "Peter gave John a book", "Peter" is the subject", "a book" the direct object, "John" the indirect object. In a Japanese translation of this sentence, the subject would be marked by GA, the direct object by O and the indirect object by NI. The biggest conceptual difficulty for learners (this one anyway) is to understand the difference between GA and WA - the latter indicates the "topic" of a sentence, which is often, but not necessarily, the grammatical subject. In "The cat was chased by the dog", ONE way (not the only one) of putting it into Japanese would be NEKO WA INU GA OIMASITA, for which the nearest literal equivalent in English would be something like "As to the cat, the dog chased it" - "the dog" being the subject.

1/7/2018, 10:02:09 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/MonkeyAce9

You know, I think I've learnt more in these comment sections that I have in this course.

3/19/2019, 9:15:36 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/nivurek

Does anyone know how the usage of が works here?

6/11/2017, 2:56:04 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/Danielle401008

が signifies an indirect object. In English, a generic sentence is structured Subject (は)+ Verb + Direct Object(を) + Indirect Object(が), but the order is switched around in Japanese, and sometimes the Subject and/or Direct Object are only implied, which makes this one of the more frustrating things to learn. Sentences using ありますare exceptions, so I will start by using a simpler sentence to demonstrate the object/indirect object rule, then finish with an explanation for the above sentence.

In the sentence "I eat apples", "I" is the subject, "eat" is the verb and "apples" is the direct object--direct objects receive the action. Notice the order is S + V +D/O. In Japanese, the sentence would be "わたしはリンゴを食べます” . Notice the order is reversed: S + D/O +V. Since Japanese is a highly contextual language, it can be assumed that the speaker is the subject, so the わたしは can be dropped without changing the meaning of the sentence. わたしはリンゴを食べます and リンゴを食べます would BOTH be translated as "I eat apples" in English, as the literal translation "Eats apples" would be confusing to an English speaker without a subject to specify who is eating them.

Now to add an indirect object: "I eat apples for breakfast". Indirect objects answer the question for whom or for what reason the direct object is being acted upon. Why do you eat apples? For breakfast. The sentence in Japanese would read わたしはあさごはんがリンゴを食べます. The sentence structure is S + I/O + D/O + V. But again, the subject can be dropped: あさごはんがリンゴを食べます.

Now to return to the original sentence 本が本だなに一さつあります/ "There is (exists) one book on the bookshelf". The verb "to exist/be" is the metaphorical black hole that warps all the standard rules of grammar. Unfortunately, it is also one of the most common verbs and so taught very early in language classes, often before the idea of an object or complex sentence is ever introduced. Basically, "to exist" is neither an active nor passive verb. Existence is not performed by anyone or on anyone. A subject performs an action, so in the sentence above "book" cannot be the subject. It also cannot be a direct object, because a direct object has the verb performed upon it. Therefore, in Japanese grammar rules, "book" here defaults to an indirect object and so is signified by が. (Also, "bookshelf" is a location, not an object and is therefore modified by に). Interestingly, you CAN say "I am." in English and have "I" be the subject performing existence. It just reflects a difference in philosophical conception.

1/7/2018, 2:10:05 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/cvictoria42

That is completely wrong. が marks the SUBJECT of a verb. は marks the topic which is often, but not always, the same as the subject. Indirect objects are marked by に. In this sentence 本 is the subject of the verb あります.

10/1/2018, 4:57:49 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/ToddKedes
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Great!

10/13/2018, 11:55:06 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/JasonBaby87

I think it indicates that 本 is the subject

6/11/2017, 12:08:07 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/Il-Mentore

It's the same as when we were making statements saying "There are 3 chairs in the room" and so forth. Same construction, different counter.

3/14/2018, 11:29:50 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/ParadoxN

I love counting in a location questions because there are four ways to do it:

本だなに本が一さつあります On the book shelf: Books: One exists

本だなに一さつ本があります On the book shelf: One book, it exists

本が本だなに一さつあります Books: On the bookshelf, one exists

一さつ本が本だなにあります One book: On the bookshelf, it exists

Each one is distinct but all reference the same situation. I find that cool.

8/15/2018, 12:40:41 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/Nominus_JPG
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The only thing that is not cool is having just one book in your bookshelf :(

3/12/2019, 11:45:22 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/bmpurifoy
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It's creepy how the つ in さつ gets dropped off and you can hear dead air on the microphone as if she were interrupted in the studio

4/25/2018, 11:24:42 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/shitabuki
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さつ ("SA-TSU", or "SATSU") is not "saz" in Duolingo pronunciation

6/4/2018, 10:49:28 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/AshuChacha
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When you hold a conversation, You notice they don't put emphasis on 'u' part of 'su' and 'tsu'. So you may hear 's' or 'ts' so satsu may sounds like sats

1/20/2019, 5:51:45 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/AliciaKJ1

In this sentence, the pronunciation of 1冊 is wrong. It should be "issatsu (いっさつ)" instead of "ichi satsu".

1/20/2018, 2:20:28 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/BryanBarnh

Why is 本がーさつ本だなにあります wrong?

6/12/2017, 4:09:43 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/I.X.
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TL;DR: The word order you used can lead to misinterpretations? Maybe?


The grammatical order is:
{ [ 本だなに ( 一さつ本が ) ] あります }
{[on the shelf (one book)] exists*}

本が一さつ本だなにあります does not immediately make sense although it can, if I base on a sentence example from the Tanaka Corpus indicating 本が一冊棚から落ちた as "A book fell from the shelf" -- I dunno if this is correct because Tanaka Corpus is a collection of sentences which may have or haven't been grammar-checked.

Anyway, basing on that example, if we do a breakdown by what you mean:

{ [ ( 本が一さつ ) 本だなに ] あります }
{[(one book) on the shelf ] exists}

and that's correct, if we base on the example from TC.

But if it's in this order, it can be misinterpreted as:
{ [ 本が (一さつ本だなに) ] あります }
{[book (on one bookshelf)] exists}
*There is a book on one bookshelf.

冊 (さつ) is a counter for books only. Placing いっさつ(の) before a noun will usually make いっさつ modify the next word; in this case it's 本だな and that will make the sentence wrong.

6/13/2017, 5:50:32 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/Kurobeau

of thats so, why is 一冊本が本だなにあります wrong?

6/24/2017, 4:58:35 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/DABurnside
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I think there are two ways to refer to numbered items: To write the number before its noun, the particle の is placed between count and noun. So based on your example, it should be 一冊 の本が = one (volume of) book. Otherwise, 本が一冊 puts the counter after the noun and the particle の isn't required (book, one volume). I think that is why your statement is wrong.

12/8/2017, 8:02:30 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/I.X.
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Idk. Maybe the app wants 本一冊 (also correct)? I've submitted a report. Japanese is still in Incubation Phase 3, anyway (https://incubator.duolingo.com/courses/en/ja/status). It's not yet labeled "complete" so I guess that means that issues can still arise and it's still not 100% complete (https://support.duolingo.com/hc/en-us/articles/204761884-To-Beta-and-beyond-What-are-the-course-progress-phases-) and that the moderators and contributors will still keep revising lessons that they have received feedback in.

7/1/2017, 7:12:35 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/machashe13

I think because tecnically the placement of the referred to item takes precedence over a descriptor of that item in Japanese sentence structure. I might be wrong, though.

6/13/2017, 1:47:19 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/richard.sa211753

What does さつ mean?

8/9/2018, 1:51:18 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/orchid223
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Think of it like "volume". It is a counter for books. Japanese uses it whenever there is a number and the word book.

We use counters with words like paper. I want 3 sheets of paper. Sheet would be a counter. Japanese just uses them all the time.

8/28/2018, 11:43:09 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/cvictoria42

That's a really sad bookshelf

10/1/2018, 5:00:25 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/AshuChacha
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;_;

1/20/2019, 5:49:01 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/DerrickMcClure1

What's wrong with 本は本だなに一さつがあります ?

11/18/2017, 8:13:02 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/Naniwanu

Okay... 'There are seven books on the bookshelf' can be '七冊本が本棚にあります' (this is what I've inputted), but it counted it wrong as I input '一冊本が本棚にあります' for this question...

6/19/2018, 2:29:55 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/lianlaughsalot

why do we use 一冊 and not 一つ

6/26/2018, 9:14:59 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/kemla1

Counting works differently in Japanese. You use different endings for different items and things. 一冊 (issatsu) is used for counting books. And possibly other things, but I haven't progressed that far yet

8/22/2018, 12:14:18 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/Connor754195

what is the difference between ga and ha

7/3/2018, 12:44:39 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/Altheasyri

が and は are particles that mark a noun as the subject or topic of a sentence (which in English is indicated by the position of the noun in the sentence). が is for when the noun is being used in the sentence only because it could not be understood by implication - simply to state what the subject of the sentence is. は is used if the noun is explicitly stated for some sort of emphasis, like to contrast it with something else. For example, in a sentence like "Your hair looks nice" with no emphasis, meaning simply that it looks nice, が would mark 'your hair' as the subject. But in a sentence like "Your hair looks nice" with emphasis on 'your hair', implying by contrast that the rest of you is a mess, は would be used to mark 'your hair' as the topic of the sentence. (When used as a particle, は is pronounced wa rather than ha.)

10/1/2018, 9:06:18 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/hoovard

Please allow 本棚 and 一冊 in this answer

1/12/2019, 8:55:31 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/kidkuma

Japan is destination particle + book, sounds about right.

1/14/2019, 7:00:17 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/AshuChacha
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It doesn't counts the kanji "だな” in ほんだな/本棚

1/20/2019, 5:48:52 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/Sol308444

What's wrong with 本は本棚の上に一さつあります ? (I guess that ue ni is unnecessary but why is it wrong)

1/23/2019, 10:45:56 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/Phantom961
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So I got 本棚に一さつ本があります correct but would like to know how it differentiates in terms of meaning to the given answer and if so which would be considered more 'correct' or suitable depending on context

3/8/2019, 11:45:34 AM
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