Translation:I am from Japan.
I think some learners may appreciate a little further discussion of the given rōmaji, in regards to the elision of し with the little ゅ into a single syllable.
It may seem to the neophyte that if the rōmaji for きゅ is kyu, then the rōmaji for しゅ ought to be shyu. And yet for all words involving しゅ, the rōmaji is consistently given as shu instead.
It is not too difficult to fathom the reason behind this convention of orthography. If we make the correct sound /ɕ/ as represented by "sh", there is no way to say "shu" without sounding like "shyu". With the tongue position for /ɕ/, the y-sound is already built-in, so they don't bother with writing it out.
On the other hand, if a learner has not quite yet mastered the /ɕ/ sound (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_alveolo-palatal_fricative) and uses /ʃ/ as a substitute, then "shyu" or "shiu" would yield a better approximation than "shu" for しゅ.
bi11ie is right with the pronuncination, but just so you know, it is written しゅっしん, not しゆつしん. The ゅ and っare smaller versions of the ゆ and つ kana. (Compare ゆゅ and つっ). The small ゆ after し means that it is pronounced "shu", and the small つ indicates that the consonant after it is doubled, so it becomes shusshin.
I don't know what keyboard that exactly is, but if you input it in romaji, then you just type "sho" for しょ, "shu" for しゅ "tte" for って etc. If it is a flick keyboard, you type the character you want and then there is a button at the lower left (I think) which swaps a kana into its smaller form.
Speakers of other languages (of which there are many -- Italian, for example) that distinguish double from single consonants in their pronunciation can easily adapt to the use of the small っ in Japanese to signify the same effects. Unfortunately. we don't make such distinctions in (British or American) English. (For example, the double-T in "attitude" has no quality different from a single-T). So, without prior exposure, English speakers may need some further explanations.
As applied to plosive (AKA stop) consonants such as /k/ and /t/, a "doubling" indeed produces a sudden and momentary stoppage of airflow -- the "pause" that Isaac and Igor detect in Japanese. Italians likewise do this in saying, for example, "attitudine". Although we don't do this in saying "attitude", the concept is not entirely foreign to us. We do something similar with the pairing of two different plosive consonants. In "aptitude", there is a shortening of the preceding vowel in rushing to the "p" sound, which we realize up to the moment of air stoppage, and a moment later the airflow is released again with the articulation of the following "t". (Incidentally both English words ultimately came from the same Latin root "aptō".)
In Japanese, as well as in Italian, the "doubling" of sibilant fricative consonants, such as /s/ and /ɕ/ has a similar effect, but with an important difference -- even as the vocal cords stop sounding at the end of the preceding vowel, the airflow continues on to make the hissy fricative noise, in essence lengthening the consonant (as compared to a singleton of that consonant). There is no pause here.
In these exercises on Duolingo, we hear a number of audio examples for しゅっしん, all but one of which demonstrate this lengthening of /ɕ/. The one exception has a pause instead. I believe this was just a glitch in speech synthesis and was not meant to show us an alternative pronunciation. Here you can hear native Japanese speakers say this word: https://forvo.com/word/しゅっしん/#ja. And here to hear another example of a "doubled" sibilant fricative: あっさり ("simple") https://forvo.com/word/あっさり/#ja.
米国人 (beikokujin) was the Kanji attributed to the U.S by the Japanese prior to westernization, and it would've died out by WWII, as no one would want to name their enemy as wealthy. And 人 refers to someone with an ethnic heritage to the land, so the only actual 米国人 would have to be the Natives, and that's a thing.
出身 しゅっしん talks about 'where you are originally from'. i.e. I am from Tokyo. is 東京しゅっしんです。If you meet someone in Osaka in Japan and ask the person where he/she originally comes from (such as where the person was born), you use this sentence 'しゅっしんはどこですか？’ It is used when you want to specify the place the person is from. I hope I don't confuse you.
出身 (しゅっしん) is a noun, so strictly speaking, it doesn't need to be next to です.
The example you gave would work, but I think it's more common to say アメリカ出身で学生です. You can think of で here as an abbreviation of です which lets you join independent sentences together. The て-form of です, if you will.
However, the grammar of 出身 necessitates that アメリカ goes first. This is related to the word order when using の for indicatung possession. Compare となりのトトロ ("next-door's Totoro" 》 "My neighbor Totoro") and トトロのとなり ("Totoro's next-door" 》 "beside Totoro").
アメリカ出身 and アメリカの出身 are effectively the same, so if we look at アメリカの出身 the same way as before, we get "America's origin". Huh. But the way the kanji is constructed, it literally means "exit person", so アメリカの出身 becomes "America's exit person" or "person who exited America". Voilà, that's how we get "from America".
Not exactly, though they are both often used in the same situation. (Also, you don't need the に particle there.)
One main difference is that 出身 (しゅっしん) specifically refers to a person's origin, whereas 日本から来ました can also apply to items, like parcels or souvenirs etc. Also, 日本から来ました doesn't always talk about a person's background; an American who holidayed in Japan before moving onto Korea can say it, but they can't say 日本出身です (unless of course, they are also an American who grew up in Japan).
Onyomi, but maybe only used in "日本." By the way "日" is one of a very few Kanjis with so MANY pronunciation because it is too common, if you want to know, its onyomi includes "に" for ”日本”, "にち" for "一日/いちにち" (one day), "じつ " for "休日/きゅうじつ "(holiday), and its kunyomi includes "ひ" for "あの日/あのひ" (that day), "か" for "二日/ふつか" (second day of a month). Many words with this Kanji are pronounced completely irregular, like "明日/あした" means "tomorrow," etc. Hope this won't make you loss your confidence. Keep going!
don't know if this has been mentioned, but you (the devs, people running duolingo) really should strive for consistency regarding the expected answers in the "write what you hear section". for example: if I type はじめまして and autoconvert so that the 初「はつ、しょ」kanji is created and enter 初めまして as the answer, the answer is considered wrong, because I didn't write it in kana alone?
so I thought, okay from now on I will write only kana and lo and behold when I typed にほんじんです, this was now wrong because I didn't use the kanji for 日本. this makes no sense at all to me - either stick to kana in this particular exercise or allow anything that is actually correct. I know it can get messy later, with words that could be written in kanji but are usually written in kana only etc., but the way it works at the moment is really irritating.
almost forgot: 日本出身です、was considered incorrect - a mixture of kana and kanji was expected: 日本しゅっしんです。。。
The IME gives me「出身」as a substitute for 「しゅっしん」、and as far as I can tell from the comments it is the correct Kanji for this use. But Duo doesn't accept that for this exercise & there is no "my answer should be accepted" on transcription quizes. So... complaining here instead. There are enough things to remember in this course without having to remember "have we been taught the kanji or only the spelling for this word yet?"
my input for this exercise was 日本出身です。which according to google translate is okay. I don't know the kanji 出身 at all i just typed the sentence with the japanesse keyboard from microsoft IME and the predictive function suggested it as the first recommendation. what i would like to know is which form is used more frecuently when writing? if is not too much to ask. sorry for my bad english, i'm not a native speaker
Not the right sentence, but a correct alternative could be 私は日本から来ました。
However, from the way Duo has been constructing their lessons so far, 私は would typically be omitted. Also, the particle から has yet to be introduced, as has the verb 来ます and the past tense conjugation -ました. There's a lot more to learn in your suggested translation (which, one could argue, isn't necessarily a bad thing).
Kanji almost always have two or more different readings/pronunciations. Which reading is used/correct depends a lot on the kanji or characters around it and I think Duo's TTS doesn't always get it right.
The first character, 日, is especially complicated because it's a very common kanji and has many different readings and exceptions.