"I will not study today."
When describing the act of studying, you can say べんきょうをします or just べんきょうします (from the verb べんきょうする, "to study")
Its because you turn benkyou into a verb by adding suru to the end or in this case shimasu because we're being taught the polite verb endings.
So the verb is benkyousuru べんきょうする therefore it does not need a particle to add a verb at the end of the sentence.
I literally have no idea what I'm saying. Lessons are without structure and don't tell us how things work. They just assume we understand things immediately.
Exactly. I'm just guessing what symbols go where. I have no clue. This is not teaching me what I need to know to properly learn it.
I agree, I have been supplimenting these lessons with other resources. Jisho, the online dictionary, has been a big help.
What I find helps, is thinking of yoda saying the sentence: Today, study I will not
今日: today (pronounced きょう) は: marks the topic べんきょう: study しません: to not do* (i will not)
*the verb is Suru (する): to do. It is in the polite form which is shimasu (します) and negative (to not do) which makes it shimasen (しなせん).
(Please correct me if anything is wrong, I am still learning)
useful comment but i think you used the wrong hiragana for shimasen you wrote the one for "na" instead of "ma" (sorry if it's not clear, i don't know how to write it on my keyboard)
I consider this comment section the part where they teach why I'm saying this or that.
Duolingo is, from my experience, good for practice and terrible at explaining/teaching. If you really want to learn the structure, reasoning behind it, and even a lil culture, try Human Japanese in the app store. The trail version will give you a good idea if its worth your money, but I have personally found it to be the best resource for actually learning everything. How to say it, how to write it, and all the weird rules.
You're right. The only reason why i understand any of this is because i studied Japanese as a hobby beforehand but i think that Japanese is too complex or a language to learn solely on duolingo. They dont explain hefty chunks of the basic things speakers need to know given that its so different to other languages, except maybe Korean.
Duolingo is more or less a review tool. If you're really committed to learning, there are apps for kanji, grammar, handwriting, and practically anything else you need to know about Japanese. Using them all, you can build a foundation and when you come back to Duolingo these lessons will make a lot more sense.
If you're new to the language though, you might want to try out Lingodeer. It's got pretty much everything you'll need.
The verb is "勉強する” (べんきょうする). The verb する is irregular and the negative present tense is しません. 「ありません」 would be the negative of the verb 「ある」, which means "there is".
ある is to have or an innanimate object exists. So you wouldn't use it here. Side note, I really just wanted to click on the option "ﾊﾟ-テｨ" and be done with it.
I'm afraid I missed why "は" is required after "今日". I assumed it was implied that the topic was "私", which, along with the "は" would be ommitted.
So In my imagination would look something like 今日私は勉強しません。
Am I wrong?
From my understanding, adding the は after 今日 would somewhat emphasize the "today" part of the sentence. Sort of like saying, "As for today, I will not study." Maybe you did yesterday and will tomorrow, but you won't today.
Not adding it, which Duo also accepts, would be more of a general statement with no specific emphasis. Just a very general, "Today, I will not study."
I'm nowhere near proficient enough to answer questions but Duolingo did accept my sentence without は.
勉強する is a fixed set phrase like many others outside the scope of duolingo. It is the original base form. を is optional. You can conjugate it into forms like shinai, masu, masen, mashita, masendeshita, etc depending on the sentence.
Why is し requiered between the verb stem べんきょう and the negative conjugation ません? Sorry if I got the grammatical names wrong
because "to study" is actually べんきよう します。
べんきよう meaning "studies" and します meaning "to do".
In japanese there are many more other activities which are said as :activity:+ shimasu. Like e.g. denwa shimasu (でんわ します) "to do a phone call".
And negative of します is しません.
It seems a [noun] is combined with a verb [する] and the resulting construction used as a compound verb for the specific activity. There is a funny and interesting Twitter post about it: https://twitter.com/ErikaAlpert/status/1028154746681606144
Can this phrase also be translated as "I am not studying today" and "I didn't study today" ? Is there any tense that is specified?
します is the verb "to do." It can also be attached to the end of certain nouns (like べんきょう - "study") to form what is called a "suru verb," which is basically just a verb form of that noun. So べんきょう + します = べんきょうします = "to do study" / "studying"
います is the verb "to exist" for animate objects, like people. います is also used in many places where English would use "have" as well, like in "I have two brothers."
why is 'は' used as the particle after 今日 and not 'に', which is what i thought was the time indicating particle?
What about if you want to say "she will not study today"? How do particles work here?
Works very similar to 'I will not study today'. All you need to do is replace the 'I' with 'She'. But where is the 'I'? In japanese you do not have to reiterate who you are talking about if the subject of the conversation is on them. If no subject has been established yet its safe to infer that the person talking is talking about themselves. For example, if I walked up to a random person and said "ばかです" I haven't established who im calling an idiot, therefore its safe to assume Im calling myself and idiot. In this sentence: "今日はべんきょうしません" no subject is established so you are talking about yourself. If you wanted to make the subject about someone else, lets say 'she', you would just insert that in the appropriate place. Japanese is an SOV language (subject, object, verb) just like how yoda talks if that helps. SO in this case 今日 is the subject, べんきょう is the object, and しません is the verb. In a Japanese sentence names always go first then time (when you are talking about someone in particular). So you would put 'she' right before 'today'. This would give you: かのじょは今日はべんきょうしません。