Translation:I came from the US.
I think that's technically correct, however in a different app Kara was taught in exactly the same way Shusshin was in this one. "I am from __". "I come from" might be a more accurate translation than "I came from."
I looked to the internet and what it told me is that Shusshin more specifically refers to a person's hometown or place of birth, where it sounds like Kara is a little more open.
Totally separate note, but in the same lesson it taught Dochira to be the polite form of Doko. The more you know! (Or, more accurately, the more apps you use..)
Although Americans refer to their country as "the US" and "the States" in addition to just "America," "America" is the most common way we refer to our country. If we're talking about the continents, we'll specify North, South, or Central. So, "America" is the most natural translation, especially since that is literally what the Katakana spells (albeit phonetically, as a direct 1:1 would be "Amerika.")
Maybe. I've heard one Japanese guy being surprised that Americans call themselves "Americans" and not "United States People" though. So, it was my assumption that it had more to do with what others may have perceived what our usual way of calling ourselves/our country was. Hard to say for sure without a direct quote on the topic, though.
Ahh, I get it. So, if "kara" indicates movement from somewhere, that explains why it can also mean "because." "Sore kara" = "That's because/that's why." The reasoning COMING FROM "that." So cool. :D Following that reasoning, can it be used freely like "because?" Like "kirai kara" to mean "because I don't like it"?
Yeah, you can say "嫌いから / kirai kara" for "Because I don't like it.", and "嫌いですから / kirai desu kara" and "嫌いからです / kirai kara desu" are more formal versions.
Also I'm guessing using "何から / nani kara" to mean "why" probably sounds a bit weird, and you'd be better off using "何故 / なぜ / naze", "なんで / nande", or "どうして / doushite".
I totally agree. Personally, I usually use "doushite" for asking the question of "why" but use "kara" as more of a 1:1 for the meaning of "because." (Like, in English we say "That is why" but really the most direct meaning for "why" in that sentence is "because." It sounds less weird to use "because" when rearranged as "Because of that." as opposed to "That is because" which should be followed by more sentence in English.)
来 (used in this sentence) means "to come" - jisho.org/search/来てる
I have an Android phone with the default Google keyboard (I know Samsung uses their own crappy keyboard, so it works differently on those phones). I can add the Japanese keyboard by going to the keyboard's settings (above the 'u' there is a settings gear). From there I click on the "Laguages" option and on the bottom of the screen "Add Keyboard".
Once The Japanese keyboard is setup then you can switch between input languages with the globe icon left to the spacebar.
It probably works similarly on other kinds of keyboards as well, so you could probably figure out how to do it on your phone ^^