Latin for Duolingo: Vocabulary List

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This post replaces one from a few years ago that has become inaccessible. It is classified by part of speech. For the list linking to all the Latin lessons posted so far in sequence, please see this Latin for Duolingo Directory Earlier lessons will still link to the old vocabulary list, but the Directory list will have the updated link. There is also a Memrise course available here – Latin for Duolingo Memrise Thanks so much for following along and I hope you enjoy learning Latin!

First Declension Nouns
feminine unless otherwise noted; terra, terrae, terrae, terram, terrā | terrae, terrarum, terris, terras, terris
agricola, ae (m.) = farmer
amita, ae = aunt (father’s sister)
aqua, aquae = water
aranea, ae = spider
arca, ae = box, chest
autobirota, ae (motobirota, ae) = motorcycle
avia, ae = grandmother
bestia, ae = beast, wild animal
bibliotheca, ae = library
birota, ae = bicycle
bracae, arum (pl.) = trousers, breeches, pants
bracae linteae caeruleae = blue jeans
brevissimae bracae = shorts
bubula, ae = beef
caepa, ae = onion
cafea, cafeae = coffee
caliga, ae = boot (worn by soldiers)
camera, ae = room, chamber (traditionally, with an arched ceiling)
carota, ae = carrot
casa, ae = cottage, small house
cathedra, ae = chair, armchair, upholstered chair
caupona, ae = restaurant, inn, tavern (or the landlady who keeps it)
cella, ae = room, storeroom
cena, ae = dinner
cerva, ae = deer
cervisia, ae = beer
charta, ae = paper, sheet of paper
cista, ae (capsa, ae) = box (we already know arca, ae, which usually refers to a chest or large box for storage)
cithara, ae = guitar, lute, lyre
claviatura, ae (plectrologium, i) = keyboard (of a computer, etc.)
consobrina, ae = (female) cousin (on mother’s side) (strictly, mother’s sister’s child)
corona, ae = crown
culina, ae = kitchen
epistula, ae = letter, epistle
faba, ae = bean
fabrica, ae = workshop, factory
familia, ae = family
farina, ae = flour, meal
fenestra, ae = window
femina, feminae = woman
filia, ae = daughter
formica, ae = ant
fossa, ae = ditch, trench
furca, ae = fork
Gallia, ae = Gaul, or France depending on historical context
gemma, ae = jewel, gem
gratiae, gratiarum (pl.) = thanks
gunna, ae = skirt
herba, ae = grass, herb
hora, ae = hour, (time, season)
injuria, ae = injury, injustice, wrong
insula, ae = island, apartment building
Kalendae, Kalendarum (pl.) = the Kalends, the first day of every month
lana, ae = wool
lingua, ae = language (lingua Latina = the Latin language, Latin)
littera, ae = letter (of the alphabet)
litterae, arum = (plural) a letter or dispatch; literature
Lucia, Luciae = Lucia, Lucy
magistra, ae = teacher (female)
matertera, ae = aunt (mother’s sister)
memoria, ae = memory
mensa, ae = table
musca, ae = fly
nauta, ae (m.) = sailor
Nonae, Nonarum (pl.) = the Nones, the 7th day of March, May, July, October, and the 5th of all other months
novacula, ae = razor
nuptiae, arum = wedding, marriage, nuptials (used in plural)
olla, ae = pot, jar
oryza, ae = rice
palla, ae = shawl, cloak (usually for women, worn outdoors)
patella, ae = dish, plate
patina, ae = a dish, serving dish (usually larger than a patella)
patria, ae = fatherland, native country
Paula, Paulae = Paula
pecunia, ae = money
pila, ae = ball
pirata, ae (m.) = pirate
poeta, ae (m.) = poet
porcina, ae = pork
prima mensa = the main course of a Roman dinner
puella, puellae = girl
pugna, ae = fight, battle
raeda, ae (autocinetum, i) = car
regina, ae = queen
rosa, ae = rose
rota, ae = wheel
scalae, arum (pl.) = staircase, ladder
schola, ae = school
secunda mensa = dessert
sella, ae = chair, stool
silva, ae = forest, woods (frequently used in the plural)
simia, ae = monkey, ape
solea, ae = sandal, slipper
stola, ae = (woman’s) dress, robe
taberna, ae = shop, storefront
tabula, ae = menu (also writing tablet, list, chart, placard, etc.)
tapeta, ae = carpet, tapestry
terra, ae = land, earth
thea, theae = tea
toga, ae = toga
tunica, ae = tunic, shirt (modern)
tunica manicata = jacket, fitted coat (with long sleeves)
tunicula, ae = t-shirt
ursa, ae = bear
uva, ae = grape, bunch of grapes
vacca, ae = cow
via, ae = road, way
villa, ae = house, farmhouse, country house
violina, ae = violin

Second Declension Nouns
masculine – endings in -us or -r; amicus, amici, amico, amicum, amico | amici, amicorum, amicis, amicos, amicis
advocatus, i = lawyer, advocate
ager, agri = field
amicus, i = friend
annus, i = year
architectus, i m. (architecta, ae f.) = master-builder, architect
autumnus, i = autumn, fall
avunculus, i = uncle (mother’s brother)
avus, i = grandfather
calceus, i = shoe, half-boot
cancer, cancri = crab
capillus, i = hair (sometimes used in plural)
caseus, i = cheese
cattus, i = cat (not used as frequently as feles)
catillus, i (patella, ae) = a small dish
cervus, i = deer, stag
cibus, i = food
consobrinus, i = (male) cousin (on mother’s side) (strictly, mother’s sister’s child)
coquus, i = cook
culter, cultri = knife
cuniculus, i = rabbit
delphinus, i = dolphin
digitus, i = finger, toe
discipulus, i = student
dominus, i = lord, master, owner
elephantus, i = elephant
equus, i = horse
faber, fabri (artifex, artificis)(opifex, opificis)(operarius, i) = builder, smith, carpenter, workman, craftsman
filius, i = son
focus, i = fireplace, hearth, stove
furnus, i = oven
Gaius, Gaii (Gai in some sources) = Gaius, common Roman male first name
gladius, i = sword
hortus, i = garden
humus, i (f.) (loc. humi) = ground, earth, soil
ingeniarius, i (also machinator, machinatoris) = engineer
lectus, i = bed, couch
liber, libri = book
liberi, liberorum (m. pl.) = children
locus, loci (2nd decl. m. in singular, neuter in pl.) = place
ludus, i = game, school
lupus, i = wolf
magister, magistri = teacher, master (male)
Marcus, Marci = Marcus, common Roman male first name; Mark
maritus, i = husband
medicus, i = doctor
minister, ministri (ministra, ae f.) = waiter, attendant, server
murus, i = wall
nasus, i = nose
numerus, i = number
nummus, i = coin, unit of money
nuntius, i = messenger, message, reporter, or in plural the news: nuntii latini
oculus, i = eye
patruus, i = uncle (father’s brother)
petasus, i = hat pilleus, i = cap
populus, i = nation, a people (usually singular)
porcus, i = pig
proximus, i = neighbor
puer, pueri = boy
pullus, i = chicken
Romanus, i = a Roman (m.)
sacculus, i = purse, money bag, small bag
scientificus, i (homo scientiae) = scientist, man of science
servus, i = slave, servant
signifer, signiferi = standard-bearer
sucus, i = juice
tabernarius, ii (caupona, ae)(cauponarius, ii) = shopkeeper
talus, i = ankle
taurus, i = bull
thesaurus, i = treasure
umerus, i (humerus in late Latin) = shoulder, upper arm
ursus, i = bear
vir, viri = man

neuter – endings in –um; donum, doni, dono, donum, dono | dona, donorum, donis, dona, donis
acetaria, orum (pl.) = salad, greens dressed with vinegar
aedificium, i = building
aeroplanum, i (also aeronavis, is) = airplane
atrium, i = reception hall, living room, gathering room, great room
auxilium, i = help, aid
balneum, i = bath, bathroom
balneum pensile = shower (literally “hanging bath”)
bellum, i = war
bracchium, i (brachium) = arm
caelum, i = sky, heaven
calendarium, i (kalendarium, i/ fasti, orum) = calendar, account book (debts were payable on the Kalends or first day of every month; fasti refers to days when official business was conducted)
capitilavium, i = shampoo
castra, castrorum (used in plural) = camp
chocolatum, i = chocolate
cingulum, i = belt, girdle
clavichordum, i (clavile, is (n.)) = piano (or other keyboard instrument)
collum, i (cervix, cervicis, m.) = neck
computatrum, i (instrumentum computatorium) = computer
consilium, i = plan, counsel, advice
crustulum, i = cookie
cubiculum, i = bedroom, sleeping chamber
cubitum, i = elbow
debitum, i = debt
dentifricium, i = toothpaste
diarium, diarii = newspaper, journal
donum, i = gift
dulciolum, i = candy, a sweet
forum, i = forum, marketplace, public square, court
fragum, i = strawberry
frigidarium, i = refrigerator, cold room (of public baths)
frumentum, i = grain (used in the plural to mean “crops”)
garum, i = fish sauce (also known as liquamen, a popular condiment in ancient Rome)
horologium, i = clock, watch
ientaculum, i = breakfast
impluvium, i = rainwater pool (in atrium of traditional domus)
insectum, i = insect
involucrum, i = envelope, wrapping, cover
labellum, i = basin, sink
linteum, i = sheet (or any linen cloth, a sail, an awning or curtain)
linum, i = linen, flax
maenianum, i = balcony
malum, mali = apple
matrimonium, i = marriage, wedding
negotium, ii = business, occupation (literally “no leisure”)
officium, i = office, service, duty
oleum, i = oil
oppidum, i = town
ostium, i (janua, ae) = door, entrance
otium, ii = leisure, pleasure
ovum, i = egg
pallium, i = cloak, outer garment
paludamentum, i = military cloak, commonly worn by generals
periculum, i = danger
pirum, i = pear
pittacium, i = stamp, label, ticket
poculum, i = drinking cup, bowl
prandium, i = lunch (late breakfast, brunch)
pretium, i = price
proelium, i = battle
regnum, i = kingdom
responsum, i = answer
saccharum, sacchari = sugar
sagum, i = short cloak, commonly worn by soldiers
scrinium, i = desk
signum, i = sign, standard
speculum, i = mirror
solum, i = floor, foundation, soil, ground, bottom
subligaculum, i = underwear, underpants, loincloth
tablinum, i = office, study
tectum, i = roof, ceiling
telephonum, i = telephone
televisorium, i = television set
tergum, i = back
thermopolium, i = take-out restaurant, cafe, deli counter, fast food place
triclinium, i = dining room
vallum, i = wall, rampart, palisade wall
vehiculum, i = vehicle
ventilatrum, i = fan
verbum, i = word
vestimentum, i = garment, article of clothing, clothes (in pl.)
vexillum, i = flag
vinum, i = wine
vivarium, i = zoo, animal habitat, game preserve

Third Declension Nouns:

m/f, declined regularly (lex, legis, legi, legem, lege| leges, legum, legibus, leges, legibus)
aestas, aestatis (f.) = summer
amanuensis, amanuensis (c.) = secretary, clerk
anas, anatis (f.) = duck
auctor, auctoris (m.) = author, inventor, creator, cause
auris, auris (f.) = ear
bellator, bellatoris (m.) = warrior
bos, bovis (c.) = ox, bull, cow
bubo, bubonis (m.) = owl
calix, calicis (m) = chalice, wine cup
canis, canis (c.) = dog
caro, carnis (f.) = meat, flesh
civitas, civitatis (f.) = state, citizenship, community, city
color, coloris (m.) = color
conjunx, conjugis (c.) = spouse, bride, consort (pl. conjuges = a married couple)
custos, custodis (m.) = guard
doctor, doctoris (m.) = teacher, learned man, scientist, one with an advanced degree
dolor, doloris (m.) = pain, sorrow
dux, ducis (m.) = general, leader
feles, felis (f.) = cat
frater, fratris (m.) = brother
gustatio, gustationis (f.) = appetizer
hebdomas, hebdomadis (f.) (sabbatum, i/sabbata, orum/septimana, ae)= week, seven days (septimana is closest to modern Romance languages, but is only found in Late Latin.)
hiems, hiemis (f.) = winter homo, hominis (m.) = man, human
imperator, imperatoris (m.) = commander-in-chief, general, emperor, ruler (outranks dux)
infans, infantis (c.) = baby, infant
judex, judicis (iudex, iudicis) (m.) = judge
Klingon, Klingonis (c.) = a Klingon
labor, laboris, (m.) = work, effort, toil
leo, leonis (m.) = lion
lepus, leporis (m.) = rabbit, hare
lex, legis (f.) = law
libertas, libertatis (f.) = liberty, freedom
lodix, lodicis (f.) = blanket, bedspread
lux, lucis (f.) = light
mater, matris (f.) = mother
mercator, mercatoris (m.) (negotiator, negotiatoris (m.)) = merchant, trader, businessman
miles, militis (m.) = soldier
mulier, mulieris (f.) = woman (femina is also used)
mus, muris (c.) = mouse, rat
nemo, neminis (c.) = no one, nobody
nepos, nepotis (m. or common in plural) = grandson, grandchild, nephew, descendant
neptis, neptis (f.) = granddaughter
nux, nucis (f.) = nut
ovis, ovis (c.) = sheep
panis, panis (m.) = bread
papilio, papilionis (m.) = butterfly, moth
parens, parentis (c.) = parent
pater, patris (m.) = father
patruelis, patruelis (c.) = cousin on father’s side (strictly, child of father’s brother)
pax, pacis (f.) = peace
pes, pedis (m.) = foot
piscator, piscatoris (m.) = fisherman
piscis, piscis (m.) = fish
pollex, pollicis (m.) = thumb (big toe)
potio, potionis (f.) = a drink, beverage
praeses, praesidis (also praesidens, praesidentis) = president
princeps, principis (m.) = chief, leading man, boss
procurator, procuratoris (m.)(praepositus, i) = manager, supervisor, boss
quaestio, quaestionis (f.) = question, investigation
rex, regis (m.) = king
(inter)rogatio, rogationis (f.) = question, inquiry, bill
sal, salis (m.) = salt
sanguis, sanguinis (m.) = blood, family
sapo, saponis (m.) = soap
scriptor, scriptoris (m.) = writer, scribe
sedes, sedis (f.) = chair, seat, residence
societas, societatis (f.) = company, (business) organization
sol, solis, (m.) = sun
soror, sororis (f.) = sister
supellex, supellectilis (f.) (used in the singular) = furniture, household furnishings
televisio, televisionis (f.) = television
testudo, testudinis (f.) = tortoise, turtle (also a defensive military formation)
tigris, tigris/ tigridis = tiger
timor, timoris (m.) = fear
tonsor, tonsoris (m.) = barber
universitas, universitatis, f. (universitas magistrorum et scholarium) = university (community of teachers and scholars)
uxor, uxoris (f.) = wife
vesper, vesperis (also vesper, vesperi) (m.) = evening
vestis, vestis (f.) = clothing, clothes, robe, garment
veritas, veritatis (f.) = truth
virtus, virtutis (f.) = courage, virtue, manliness
vox, vocis (f.) = voice, cry

neuter, declined regularly (flumen, fluminis, flumini, flumen, flumine| flumina, fluminum, fluminibus, flumina, fluminibus)
caput, capitis (n.) = head
corpus, corporis (n.) = body
crus, cruris (n.) = leg (lower leg)
diploma, diplomatis, n. = letter of recommendation, letter of authority
flumen, fluminis (n.) = river
holus, holeris (n.) = vegetable
iter, itineris (n.) = journey, route, march
jus, juris (n.) = soup, broth, gravy
lac, lactis (n.) = milk
lumen, luminis (n.) = lamp, light
nomen, nominis (n.) = name
opus, operis (n.) (munus, muneris)(negotium, i)(labor, laboris) = work, job, employment
ōs, oris (n.) = mouth
pectus, pectoris (n.) = chest
pecus, pecoris (n.) = cattle, herd, domesticated animal, beast
piper, piperis (n.) = pepper (black pepper)
rus, ruris (n.) (loc. ruri or rure) = the country, countryside, farm
sidus, sideris (n.) = constellation, star
tempus, temporis (n.) = time, period of time, season
ver, veris (n.) (abl. s. veri) = spring

m/f, with i-stem in gen. pl. (pars, partis, parti, partem, parte| partes, partium, partibus, partes, partibus)
apis, apis, apium (f.) = bee
avis, avis, avium (f.) = bird
civis, civis, civium (c.) = citizen
clavis, clavis, clavium (f.) = key
collis, collis, collium (m.) = hill
dens, dentis, dentium (m.) = tooth, tusk
finis, finis, finium (f. in s., m. in pl.) = s. end, limit, boundary, death; pl. territory, country
frons, frontis, frontium (f.) = forehead, brow, front
gens, gentis, gentium (f.) = tribe, nation, clan
hostis, hostis, hostium (c.) = enemy
ignis, ignis, ignium (m.) = fire
mensis, mensis, mensium (m.) = month
mons, montis, montium (m.) = mountain
mors, mortis, mortium (f.) = death
nox, noctis, noctium (f.) = night
pars, partis, partium (f.) = part, piece
pons, pontis, pontium (m.) = bridge
serpens, serpentis, serpentium (c.) = snake
urbs, urbis, urbium (f.) = city
vigil, vigilis, vigilium (m.) (+publicus) = policeman

neuter, with i-stem in abl. s., nom., gen., and acc. pl (mare, maris, mari, mare, mari | maria, marium, maribus, maria, maribus
animal, animalis, animalium (n.) = animal
cervical, cervicalis, cervicalium (n.) (pulvinus, i) = pillow, cushion
cocleare, coclearis (n.) = spoon, spoonful, snail shell
cor, cordis (cordium, but corda nom. and acc. pl.) (n.) = heart
mantele, mantelis, mantelium (n.) = towel, hand-towel
mare, maris, marium (n.) = sea
mel, mellis (n.) = honey
ocularia (n. pl.) (vitra ocularia, pl.) = glasses (n.b. this is a 3rd declension plural neuter adjective, used as a noun)
os, ossis, ossium (n.) = bone
tibiale, tibialis, tibialium (n.) = sock

4th Declension Nouns
masculine unless otherwise noted (portus, portūs, portuī, portum portū | portūs, portuum, portibus, portūs, portibus)
adventus, us = arrival, approach, coming
domus, us (f.) (abl. domo, loc. domi) = house, home
exercitus, us = army
fructus, us = fruit, produce
gradus, us = step, degree, position, rung of a ladder
gustus, us = taste
genu, genus (n.) = knee
habitus, us = condition, appearance; suit of clothes
Idus, Iduum (f.)(pl.) = the Ides, the 15th day of March, May, July, October, and the 13th of all other months
impetus, us = attack
manus, us (f.) = hand, power
objectus, us (m.)(obiectus) = obstacle, object (for object, res, rei / corpus, corporis may also be used)
odoratus, us = smell, sense of smell
portus, us = harbor, port
reditus, us = return, returning, income, rent
sensus, us = sense
sinus, us = (originally, the fold of a toga used to store valuables), pocket
spiritus, us = spirit, breath
tactus, us = touch, sense of touch
vestitus, us = clothing
visus, us = sight, vision, seeing

5th Declension Nouns
feminine unless otherwise noted (res, rei, rei, rem, re | res, rerum, rebus, res, rebus)
acies, aciei = sharp edge, battle line
dies, diei (m.) = day (n.b. masculine, but when referring to a specific date it may be feminine, e.g. “tertiā die” = on the third day)
dies hebdomadis; dies Solis, dies Lunae, dies Martis, dies Mercurii, dies Iovis, dies Veneris, dies Saturnis = the days of the week; Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday
facies, faciei = face, form, shape
fides, fidei = faith, trust, loyalty
meridies, meridiei (m.) = midday, noon
res, rei = thing, matter, affair, subject
spes, spei = hope

Adjectives (1st/2nd Declension):
acidus, a, um = sour
albus, a, um = white (dead white, not shining)
alius, alia, aliud (adj.) = other, another (of more than two)
almus, a, um = nurturing, nourishing, kind
alter, altera, alterum (adj.) = the one, the other (of two)
altus, a, um = high, tall, deep
antiquus, a, um = ancient, old
ater, atra, atrum = black (like a coal, not glossy); dark, gloomy
aurantius, a, um = orange (not often used in classical Latin)
aureus, a, um = golden, gold
beatus, a, um = blessed, happy (compare felix, laetus)
benignus, a, um = kind
bonus, a, um = good
caeruleus, a, um = blue
calidus, a, um = hot, warm
candidus, a, um = white (shining, dazzling)
canus, a, um = gray, gray-haired
certus, a, um = certain, sure, determined (certiorem facio = inform, lit. “make more certain”)
chartaceus, a, um = made of paper
dexter, dextera, dexterum (dexter, dextra, dextrum) = right, on the right
dubius, a, um = doubtful (comparison uses the adverbs magis, maxime)
durus, a, um = hard, harsh, unrefined
flavus, a, um = yellow, blond/e-haired
frigidus, a, um = cold, cool
fuscus, a, um = brown
honestus, a, um = respectable, upright, honest
laetus, a, um = happy, glad, joyful
laneus, a, um = woolen, made of wool
latus, a, um = wide
liber, libera, liberum = free
linteus, a, um = made of linen
longus, a, um = long
luteus, a, um = yellow
magnus, a, um = large, great
malus, a, um = bad
manicatus, a, um = with long sleeves, long-sleeved
medius, a, um = middle, midst
meus, a, um = my, mine
miser, misera, miserum = wretched, poor
multus, a, um = much, many
negotiosus, a, um = busy, full of business
niger, ❤❤❤❤❤, nigrum = black (glossy); dark
nonnulli, ae, a = a few, some (lit. “not none”)
noster, nostra, nostrum = our, ours
novus, a, um = new
nullus, a, um = no, none
parvus, a, um = small
pauci, ae, a = few
plenus, a, um = full (w. gen. or abl.)
praeteritus, a, um = past, bygone, last
primus, a, um = first, the first
proximus, a, um = nearest, next, most recent, latest
publicus, a, um = public, belonging to the people/state
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum = beautiful, handsome
purpureus, a, um = purple
quantus, a, um = how great, how large, how much, how many (quanti is usually used with consto)
rectus, a, um = honest, right, proper, straight
Romanus, a, um = Roman
roseus, a, um = pink, rose
ruber, rubra, rubrum = red
rufus, a, um = ruddy, red-haired
salsus, a, um = salty, salted
scorteus, a, um = made of leather
secundus, a, um = second (of a series of more than two), following, favorable, successful
sinister, sinistra, sinistrum = left, on the left
solus, a, um = alone, only (gen. s. “solius”, dat. s. “soli”)
suus, a, um = his (own), her/hers, its, their/theirs (reflexive possessive adjective)
tardus, a, um = slow
tertius, a, um = third
totus, a, um = whole, all of (gen. s. “totius,” dat. s. “toti”)
tutus, a, um = safe
tuus, a, um = your, yours (of one person)
universus, a, um = all together, all in one, whole, universal
unus, a, um = one (in s. only; gen. unius, dat. uni)
vegetarianus, a, um = vegetarian
verus, a, um = true, real
vester, vestra, vestrum = your, yours (of more than one person)

Adjectives (3rd declension)
acer, acris, acre = sharp, keen, bitter (superlative in –rimus)
australis, e (also meridionalis, e or meridianus, a, um) = southern, of the south (from auster, the south wind, and meridies, midday or noon)
brevis, e = short
celer, celeris, celere = quick, fast, swift
difficilis, e = difficult
diligens, diligentis = careful, diligent
dulcis, e = sweet
esuriens, esurientis = hungry, starving
facilis, e = easy
felix, felicis (one form in nom. s.) = happy, lucky, fortunate
fortis, e = strong, brave
gravis, e = heavy, serious, severe
juvenis, e = young
levis, e = light (in weight), of little importance
mollis, e = gentle, soft, pleasant
occidentalis, e = western, of the west (from occidens, or occasus, the falling or setting of the sun)
omnis, e = every, all
orientalis, e = eastern, of the east (from oriens, referring to the rising of the sun)
senex, senis (one form in nom. s.)= old, aged; an old man or woman septentrionalis, e (also borealis, e) = northern, of the north (from the seven stars, septentrio, the big or little dipper, or boreas, the north wind)
similis, e = like, similar (used with gen. or dat. case to complete the meaning)
sitiens, sitientis = thirsty
tristis, e = sad
viridis, e = green
uniformis, e = uniform, having one shape

Irregular and Special Adjective Comparisons
(model of regular comparison: altus, a, um/ altior, altius/ altissimus, a, um)

difficilis, e/ difficilior, difficilius/ dificillimus, a, um = difficult, more difficult, most difficult
facilis, e/ facilior, facilius/ facillimus, a, um = easy, easier, easiest
(other adjectives like similis, dissimilis, humilis, gracilis, also form their superlatives with –limus)
dubius, a, um/ magis dubius, a, um/ maxime dubius, a, um = doubtful, more doubtful, most doubtful

miser, misera, miserum/ miserior, miserius/ miserrimus, a, um = wretched/ more wretched/ most wretched
(other adjectives ending in –er in the nom. s. m also form their superlatives by adding –rimus; acer/acrior/acerrimus, pulcher/pulchrior/pulcherrimus, celer/celerior/celerrimus – comparatives are formed regularly)

bonus, a, um/ melior, melius/ optimus, a, um = good, better, best
juvenis, e/ junior, junius/ juvenissimus, a, um = young, younger, youngest
magnus, a, um/ major, majus (maior, maius)/ maximus, a, um = big (great), bigger, biggest
malus, a, um/ pejor, pejus (peior, peius)/ pessimus, a, um = bad, worse, worst
multus, a, um/ plus (neuter noun)/ plurimus, a, um = much/ more/ most
multi, ae, a/ plures, plura/ plurimi, ae, a = many/ more/ very many
parvus, a, um/ minor, minus/ minimus, a, um = small, smaller, smallest
(the following have comparative and superlative forms, but the positive form is not used)
exterior = outer/ extremus = outermost
inferior = lower/ imus or infimus = lowest
interior = inner/ intimus = innermost
posterior = later/ postremus = last
prior = former/ primus = first
superior = higher/ supremus or summus = highest
ulterior = farther/ ultimus = farthest

Other Adjectives
aliquot (indecl.) = a number, some, a few
ambo, ambae, ambo = both
qui, quae, quod (interrogative adj.)= which, what
quidam, quaedam, quoddam = a certain one, a certain thing
quot, (indeclinable) = how many?

I. unus, una, unum = one
II. duo, duae, duo = two
III. tres, tria = three
IV. quattuor = four
V. quinque = five
VI. sex = six
VII. septem = seven
VIII. octo = eight
IX. novem = nine
X. decem = ten
XI. undecim = eleven
XII. duodecim = twelve
XIII. tredecim = thirteen
XIV. quattuordecim = fourteen
XV. quindecim = fifteen
XVI. sedecim = sixteen
XVII. septendecim = seventeen
XVIII. duodeviginti = eighteen
XIX. undeviginti = nineteen
XX. viginti = twenty
C. centum = one hundred
M. mille = one thousand (n.b. in the plural milia, a neuter noun meaning “thousands”, often used with genitive)(used with passus, us = a pace; mille passus = a mile, milia passuum = thousands of paces or miles)

Pronouns (given in 1st-2nd-3rd person order):
ego, mei = I
nos, nostri = we
tu, tui = you (s.)
vos, vestri = you (pl.)
is, ea, id = he, she, it
ei, eae, ea = they
--, sui = himself, herself, itself, themselves
hic, haec, hoc = this (these)
ille, illa, illud = that (those)
aliquis, aliquid (indef. pronoun) = someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything quid (interrogative pronoun) = what?
quis (interrogative pronoun) = who?
quisquis, quidquid (indef. pron.) = whoever, whatever, everyone who, everything which
(unus)quisque, (una)quaeque, (unum)quodque = each one, every one
uterque, utraque, utrumque = each, either, both (of two)

with accusative
ad = to, near, toward, at
ante = before, in front of
circum = around
contra = against
in = into, onto, against
inter = between, among
intra = within, inside of
per = through
post = after, behind
propter = on account of, because of
sub = under, underneath (with verbs of motion)
super = over, above, on top of (sometimes with abl.)
trans = across

with ablative
ab/ a = away from, from, by (expressing agency)
cum = with (expressing accompaniment)
de = concerning, about, from, down from
ex/e = out of, from
in = in, on
pro = on behalf of, for, before, in front of, in place of
sine = without
sub = under, beneath, underneath, below

Verbs (1st Conjugation):
Regular pattern of 4 principal parts endings: o, are, avi, atus
adjuvo (adiuvo), adjuvare, adjuvi, adjutus also juvo (iuvo), 1 = help, assist
ambulo, 1 = walk
amo, 1 = love, like, am fond of
canto, 1 = sing
ceno, 1 = dine, eat dinner
clamo, 1 = shout, cry, proclaim
cogito, 1 = think, consider
consto, constāre, constiti, constatus (1) = stand together, agree, stand firm, endure, be certain; cost (with abl. or gen.)
desidero, 1 = want, desire, long for
do, dare, dedi, datus = give
exspecto, 1 = wait, wait for
gusto, 1 = taste, enjoy
habito, 1 = live, inhabit
laboro, 1 = work, labor
laudo, 1 = praise
lavo, 1 = wash, clean
manduco, 1 = chew, eat, devour
nato, 1 = swim
navigo, 1 = sail
paro, 1 = prepare (for)
pernocto, 1 = spend the night, stay all night long
porto, 1 = carry
pugno, 1 (intr.) = fight
rogo, 1 = ask, request
seco, secare, secui, sectus, 1 = cut, divide
servo, 1 = protect, keep, preserve, watch over
specto, 1 = watch, look at
spero, 1 = hope, expect
sto, stare, steti, status, 1 = stand
veto, vetare, vetui, vetitus, 1 = forbid, prevent, reject, not allow
voco, 1 = call
volo, 1 = fly
vulnero, 1 = wound, hurt, injure
1st Conjugation Deponent Verbs
conor, conari, conatus sum, 1 = try
recordor, recordari, recordatus sum, 1 = call to mind, remember

Verbs (2nd Conjugation):
(principal parts like moneo, monēre, monui, monitus unless otherwise noted)
compleo, complēre, complevi, completus, 2 (w. abl.) = fill, fill up
debeo, 2 (w. inf.) = owe, ought, must, should
doceo, docēre, docui, doctus, 2 = teach, inform
doleo, dolēre, dolui, dolitus, 2 = feel pain, hurt, suffer
egeo, egēre, egui, 2 (w. abl. or gen.) = need, am in need of
ferveo, fervēre, ferbui, 2 (intr.) = boil
fleo, flēre, flevi, fletus, 2 = cry, weep
habeo, 2 = have
jaceo (iaceo), jacēre, jacui, jacitum, intr. 2 = lie, lie down, lie dead
jubeo (iubeo), jubēre, jussi, jussus, 2 = order, command
licet, licēre, licuit, 2 (impersonal, w. dat. and inf.) = it is permitted, it is allowed
maneo, manēre, mansi, mansurus, 2 = remain, stay
moneo, 2 = warn, advise
moveo, movēre, movi, motus, 2 = move
oportet, oportēre, oportuit, 2 (impersonal, w. acc. + inf.) = it behooves, it is necessary, it is right, must, ought
placeo, placēre, placui, placitus, 2 (w. dat.) = please, be pleasing to
praesideo, praesidēre, praesidi, 2 = sit in front of, preside over, protect
respondeo, respondēre, respondi, responsus, 2 = answer, respond
retineo, retinēre, retinui, retentus, 2 = hold back, keep, restrain
rideo, ridēre, risi, risus, 2 = laugh
sedeo, sedēre, sedi, sessus, 2 = sit
subrideo, subridēre, subrisi, subrisus, 2 = smile
teneo, tenēre, tenui, tentus, 2 = hold, keep (memoriā teneo =hold in memory, remember)
terreo, 2 = frighten, terrify
timeo, timēre, timui, 2 = fear
valeo, valēre, valui, valiturus, 2 = am strong, am well
video, vidēre, vidi, visus, 2 = see

Verbs (3rd Conjugation):
(infinitive ends in –ere; no regular pattern of principal parts)
accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus, 3 = turn on, kindle a light/lamp
ago, agere, egi, actus, 3 = do, act, drive, give
amitto, amittere, amisi, amissus, 3 = lose, send away
bibo, bibere, bibi, (bibus/bibitum), 3 = drink
cado, cadere, cecidi, casurus, 3 = fall
cano, canere, cecini, cantus, 3 = make music, play an instrument, sing (used with ablative)
capio, capere, cepi, captus, 3 (i-stem) = take, catch, capture
cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus,3 (used in perfect tense) = learn, recognize, know colo, colere, colui, cultus, 3 = till, cultivate, grow (as a crop), tend
condo, condere, condidi, conditus, 3 = build, found, establish
coquo, coquere, coxi, coctus, 3 = cook
credo, credere, credidi, creditus, 3 = believe, trust, entrust
cresco, crescere, crevi, cretum, 3 = grow, increase
curro, currere, cucurri, cursus, 3 = run, hurry
dico, dicere, dixi, dictus, 3 = say, tell
diligo, diligere, dilexi, dilectus (3) = love, value, care for
dimitto, dimittere, dimisi, dimissus, 3 = send away, dismiss, release
disco, discere, didici, discitus, 3 = learn, acquire knowledge/skill of/in
edo, edere, edi, esum, 3 = eat (some irregular and alternate forms)
emo, emere, emi, emptus, 3 = buy, gain
facio, facere, feci, factus, 3 (i-stem) = make, do
frango, frangere, fregi, fractus, 3 = break, shatter
fugio, fugere, fugi, fugitus, 3 (i-stem) = flee, fly, run away
gero, gerere, gessi, gestus (3) = have on, wear (clothing) (also, carry, carry on, wage (war))
induo, induere, indui, indutus, 3 = put on (clothing), dress in
incendo, incendere, incendi, incensus, 3 = set fire to, kindle, burn, make angry
incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptus, 3 (i-stem) = begin, undertake
jacio (iacio), jacere, jeci, jactus, 3 (i-stem) = throw, cast, hurl
lego, legere, legi, lectus, 3 = read (gather, collect)
ludo, ludere, lusi, lusus, 3 = play
mitto, mittere, misi, missus, 3 = send, send off
nosco, noscere, novi, notus, 3 (used in perfect tense) = become acquainted with, know
nubo, nubere, nupsi, nuptus, 3 = marry, take as husband
occido, occidere, occidi, occisus, 3 (also interficio, interficere, interfeci, interfectus, 3) = kill
peto, petere, petivi, petitus, 3 = seek, beg, order, ask for, aim for
pono, ponere, posui, positus, 3 = put, place, set, put down
quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitus, 3 = ask, seek
reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditus, 3 = give back, restore, render
rego, regere, rexi, rectus, 3 = direct, keep straight, rule, govern
relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictus, 3 = leave, leave behind, abandon
sapio, sapere, sapivi, 3 = taste of, have sense, understand
scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptus, 3 = write
solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus, 3 = loose, release, pay (off)
(con)sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus, 3 = take, consume (e.g., a meal)
surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus, 3 = stand up, get up
tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus, 3 = raise up, lift, take away
trado, tradere, tradidi, traditus, 3 = hand over, deliver
vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditus, 3 = sell
vinco, vincere, vici, victus, 3 = conquer, win
vivo, vivere, vixi, victus, 3 = live
3rd Conjugation Deponent Verbs
loquor, loqui, locutus sum, 3 = speak
morior, mori, mortuus sum, 3 (i-stem) = die, pass away
nascor, nasci, natus sum, 3 = am born
obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum, 3 = forget (used with gen. of persons, gen. or acc. of things, acc. with neuter pronouns or adjectives)
patior, pati, passus sum, 3 (i-stem) = allow, suffer, permit
sequor, sequi, secutus sum, 3 = follow, come after
utor, uti, usus sum, 3 (w. abl.) = use, employ, profit from/by

Verbs (4th Conjugation):
(Principal parts like audio, audire, audivi, auditus unless otherwise noted)
aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus, 4 = open
audio, 4 = hear
convenio, convenire, conveni, conventus, 4 = assemble, come together
dormio, 4 = sleep
esurio, 4 = be hungry, hunger
invenio, invenire, inveni, inventus, 4 = find, come upon
munio, 4 = fortify, construct, strengthen
nescio, nescire, nescivi, nescitus, 4 (negative form of scio) = do not know, am ignorant
pervenio, pervenire, perveni, perventus, 4 = arrive, reach
scio, 4 = know
sepelio, sepelire, sepelivi (ii), sepultus, 4 = bury, inter
sitio, sitire, sitivi, --, 4 = be thirsty, thirst
venio, venire, veni, ventus, 4 = come
4th Conjugation Deponent Verbs
orior, oriri, ortus sum, 4 = rise, arise, descend from

Verbs, Irregular:
abeo, abire, abii (abivi), abitum = go away, leave, depart
absum, abesse, afui, afuturus = am away, am distant
adfero/affero, adferre, attuli, allatus = bring to, deliver, carry
adsum, adesse, adfui, adfuturus = am here, am present
aufero, auferre, abstuli, ablatus = take away desum, deesse, defui, defuturus, irreg. (frequently used w. dat.) = fail, be without, be missing
eo, ire, ivi/ii, itum = go
exeo, exire, exii (exivi), exitum = go out, exit
fero, ferre, tuli, latus = bear, bring, carry
fio, fieri, factus sum = become, be made, be done, happen (this is the irregular passive voice of facio (3) = make, do)
ineo, inire, inii (inivi), initus, irreg. = go in, enter, begin
malo, malle, malui (irreg.) (magis + volo) = prefer, wish/want more/instead
memini, meminisse = remember (used with gen. of persons, gen. or acc. of things, acc. with neuter pronouns or adjectives)
nolo, nolle, nolui (irreg.) = am unwilling, do not want
odi, odisse (only perfect forms used) = hate
possum, posse, potui (normally used with infinitive) = am able, can
redeo, redire, redivi, reditus (irreg.) = return, go back
sum, esse, fui, futurus = I am
transeo, transire, transivi/transii, transitus = go across, go over, cross, pass
volo, velle, volui = am willing, wish for, want

acriter = sharply, bitterly
Anglice = in English
bene = well
celeriter = quickly, swiftly, fast
cotidie = daily, every day
cras = tomorrow
cur = why
diu = for a long time
facile = easily
foris = outside, outdoors
fortiter = strongly, bravely
heri = yesterday
hic = here
hodie = today, on this day
ibi (also eo, illic, illuc) = there
inde = from there, from then
intus (intro) = inside, indoors, in the house
ita = so, thus
iterum = again, for the second time
jam/iam = already, now
late = widely
Latine, adv. = in Latin
longe = far, by far
male = badly
mane = morning, in the morning
mox = soon
multum = much, very much, greatly, very, frequently, “a lot” (n.b. can also be used as a neuter noun, with the genitive)
-ne (enclitic/particle) = question mark / turns a statement into a question
nimis (nimius, nimium) = too much, excessively (often with genitive)
non = not
nondum = not yet
nonne = introduces a question expecting a “yes” answer (lit. “is it not so?”)
num = introduces a question expecting a “no” answer
numquam = never
nunc = now
parum = too little, not enough (n.b. can also be used as an indeclinable neuter noun, with the genitive)
pridie = the day before (used with acc.)
primum = at first, first of all, in the first place
quam = as, than, how
quamdiu, adv. = how long?
quando = when, at what time
quo = where to, where, whither
quomodo = how, in what way
recte = correctly, rightly; used with a verb of speaking to mean “to be right”
rursus = again, back
saepe = often, frequently, usually
satis, sat = enough, sufficiently (n.b can also be used as a neuter noun, with the genitive)
semper = always
sic = so, thus, in such a manner
tum (tunc) = then, at that time
ubi = where
ubique = everywhere
unde = from where?, whence?
ut (adv.) = how, in what way, as (we’ll encounter ut again in the future, as a conjunction meaning “in order that”, but it is also used commonly as an adverb)
valde = greatly, very
vero = in truth, truly, in fact
vespere/vesperi (adv. or abl. s.) = in the evening, at evening time

ecce = behold!, look!, here is, there is

at = but atque (ac) = and
aut = or
aut...aut = either...or
autem (postpositive) = however, but, on the other hand
cum = when, as, while, since
dum = while, as long as
enim (postpositive) = for, because, indeed, in fact
et = and = both...and
etiam = even, also
itaque (conj.) = therefore, and so
neque (nec) = and not, nor
neque...neque ( = neither...nor
-que = and (This conjunction form is an enclitic, tacked on to the end of the second word to be joined, e.g. “pueri puellaeque” = boys and girls.)
quod = because
sed = but
si = if
tamen = yet, nevertheless
vel = or

1 year ago


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