Translation:I think that Mr. Tanaka's mother is a teacher.
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~様 is on a much higher politeness level than ~さん. It doesn't really have a direct English equivalent or at least I don't know how you would translate it without sounding cheesy or ingratiating. You wouldn't use ~様 in every day speech to regularly address colleagues etc. ~様 is not to be used to address old "Joe Blow" - ie. not for just anybody.
There's no equivalent for ~ちゃん/くん you've got that right. Maybe you could convey it in English by changing the person's name to show the speaker's familiarity with the person they're addressing eg. サムくん could be translated as Sammy in English, but then if you're translating for school or for work there's the issue of how much lee-way a teacher or supervisor would allow you in terms of translation.
Actually, it's "だ と", two separate words/particals. The だ here is the plain form of です. If the sentence lacked "I think", you would write "田中さんのお母さんは先生です". But because we add "I think", we need to say the sentence in plain form.
と思う is the particle と and the verb. You'll see this many times in Japanese! Duolingo also teaches と言う, and the grammar for と思う and と言う are similar.
I left off the Mr. entirely since that's how I translate x-san in my head, always. After all, yeah, you can use it with personal names, and it doesn't have a gender, etc. It gets thrown in always so you have to deduce from context when it means something in English and when you can leave it out. It also depends on the level of politeness. When I see "I think" at the end of a sentence, it often implies a higher level of humbleness so I probably should have left the Mr. (or Ms.) in.
On my computer, quite a lot of sentences where one chooses words with an apostrophe, like this one, give you a note that says that there is an extra space. There is no available choice with one less space, so my guess is that it was encoded incorrectly. Is anyone else having this issue? It doesn't happen all the time, but it happened on this one and many others.