The yo is just like an english "yo" albeit a bit shorter and almost cut off (Japanese doesnt have the W sound at the end of O sounds). The R in "ru" you should pronounce by tapping the tip of your tongue to the gums right behind your front teeth--the same place as when you say a T. Think of how Spanish or Italian says Rs. It's often closer to a D or T sound with only a little bit of the R tongue position in the back of your mouth.
It would be more helpful if there were lessons that taught the words and phrases before you get quizzed on them. I am a complete beginner and find this very frustrating. I am also doing the Spanish one but I know a lot of Spanish so it is much more useful. It is not the best method of learning if you have no background.
The ‹R› is pronounced almost like the way an American would pronounce the ‹TT› in words like better, letter, mutter, or putter. It's a little "flap" or "tap" of the tongue against your gums. An English speaker might want to call it "a very weak ‹D› sound". The difference, though, is that, in the American English words I just described, you flap your tongue against your gums just immediately behind your teeth, whereas, in Japanese, you flap your tongue against your gums just a little bit further away from your teeth, a little bit further back, where your gums start to curve upwards to that "bowl/indent" behind the gums (the soft palette).
I know I'm two years late to answer this but... 夜 is the Chinese character for night (called a "kanji" character in Japanese). It is very important to know the kanji. In Japanese, whenever a kanji character exists for a word, they will 99% almost definitely use the kanji character instead of the hiragana. The kanji characters carry no phonetic information, though. So you can't tell how a kanji character is pronounced just by looking at it. You have to "just know" how to pronounce it. That's why it's important to know the hiragana too. Therefore, to answer your question, you should learn both よる and 夜. However, if that's too overwhelming for you, then just start with よる for now, and worry about the kanji later. When Japanese children are learning Japanese, they don't know kanji yet. They just learn how to say stuff. It's more important that you learn the spoken words so that you can actually verbally communicate with a Japanese speaker. And it is possible to communicate in writing using only hiragana (though spaces between words might become necessary then). Japanese kids study kanji all the way through up to the end of high school. And written material (like books and games) for small Japanese children tend to use only the hiragana. Walk before you run, y'know?
When getting stuff wrong, it should be playing the correct audio. My wrong answers are the only thing I'm hearing attached to the word, and I'm forming an association between a sound and a word that isn't correct. Rather, play the correct sound after getting wrong so I can build that association more readily.
I'm a bit confused, in Duolingo, it lists two translations for 'night', よる and ばん. In the type of question where you choose from the boxes of answers, "ばん" is not an option, only "よる". I put them both into (forgive me Xp) Google Translate, and it said that よる translates to "by" and ばん translates to "night". Can anyone clear this up for me, or explain the difference between the two translations?