Translation:I put in a lot of butter.
I wouldn't say there's nothing wrong about them, even as anti-prescriptivist as I am. They can be confusing, so there are usually better choices available if you want to be clear.
But this also isn't a dangling participle. It's not even a participial phrase. "Putting a lot of butter in" would be a participial phrase.
An example of a dangling participle would be something like "Putting a lot of butter in, the cake was going to be delicious." -- The thing which the participle "putting" is supposed to modify, that is, the person baking the cake, does not occur in the sentence.
The thing which makes dangling participles confusing is that they end up sounding like they're attached to a different noun from what was actually intended. So in the example above, it sounds a bit like the cake is putting a lot of butter into... itself? -- until you realise that it's an inanimate object and that makes no sense.
Sometimes this can be a bit funny. "Flying over the African landscape, the elephant herd looked majestic."
Dangling participles are only wrong from the point of view that you want language to be clear -- for poetic reasons, they're often acceptable.
The prescription against dangling participles assumes people can only parse sentences robotically and without context, and in my opinion it's difficult to write a sentence with one that's so ambiguous an average reader can't figure it out.
But looking at the comments here, (even though as you correctly say, this isn't a dangling participle) maybe I'm wrong, because I never thought I'd see so many people stymied by putting a lot of butter.
@DEcobra's post "Cholesterol here I come" is 3 years ago and I add that
RDA cholesterol daily allowance is 300mg and 100g butter = 215mg cholesterol
latest Health Official reports 300mg daily limit does not include eggs.
Also: "High-fat dairy products like butter have been linked to a reduced risk of obesity, diabetes, and heart problems. Still, butter is high in calories and saturated fat and should be enjoyed in moderation. It's best to consume it alongside a mix of heart-healthy fats like olive oil, avocado, nuts, seeds, and fatty fish."
NB: balanced health diet and portion moderation control.
[angel food cake has 0 cholesterol] TONIKAKU
[another public service announcement]
I cannot get this English translation. It sounds so awkward to me. While "I put in a lot of butter" might be literal and grammatically correct, I don't think I would ever use it myself. I would rather use "I put a lot of butter in it". If you get all loosey-goosey with the languages, then you could use like "There is a lot of butter I put in", "In it, I put a loooot of butter", or best yet "I Paula deen'd it."