"My mother is next to me."
となり can also come after 母, and is just as correct: 母がとなりにいます。 (私の)父と母の間 litterally means "(my) father and mother's inbetween", and cannot be split up further. Just like (私の)となり means "next to (me)". There is a slight change in emphasis based on which element you put first, but the overall meaning stays the same.
I looked this up.
From what I can tell, tonari is used for ordering by "type" if you will. So regardless of the distance - you could say you live next to your neighbour for example. As such, you wouldn't use it to refer to things that are of "lesser" value, as in "you are next to a wall"
Yoko means almost literally "next to." As in proximation, or placement. You would use this to point out when someone is next to something, and would be suitable for "you are next to a wall."
Sorry if that's unclear.
が is after 母 because 母 is the subject of the sentence. に is after となり because となり is the location of existence. 母が is after となりに because the Japanese sentence is slightly stressing the subject, rather than the location, although their positions can be interchanged to stress the location instead.
Hahah yeah, japanese does this a lot and will often imply "Me" as it is obvious what someone is talking about. For example, if you say "My name is Cooper. I'm 16 years old" In japanese you would say 私 in the first sentence but not the second as it's clear what you're talking about. So it would be 私の名前はクーパーです。16さいです" instead of "私は16さいです" It can be a bit confusing at first. Hope I didn't make this too confusing
Both of those literally mean that the mother is the location, not that she is IN that location. It's like saying "My mother is this place". To show that someone is in a location, you have to use a verb of existence plus the particle showing location. In this case, the verb of existence is いる (for living beings) and the particle is に to show an exact location.
I understand that you would never do this, but as a test of grammar would this sentence be "correct" even though it is extremely redundant?
Basically I tried to literally include every aspect of the English sentence into here just for fun, but Duolingo said it's incorrect.
Is "隣に母がいます" mean "Next to me is my mother"? Because I was thinking that "母は隣にいます" going to mean "My mother is next to me". I read that は is used if, it is known about the object, and if が then this is new information. As if there is a question "who is next to you". Is that right? Sorry if it sounds dum, English is not my native language.
に marks the location of an action
が marks the thing doing the action
隣に - located next to (me) 母が - my mother is the one who います - exists = "My mother is located next to me"
Switching them gets 母に - located at my mother 隣が - a neighbor います - exists = "Next to me is located at my mother"
が marks the do-er or be-er (the subject) of a sentence. 母がいます "My mother exists"
の is a noun-linking particle. The noun before the particle modifies the noun after it. If it were included here it would be between the implied 私 "I/me" and the location 隣 "next to/neighboring" 私の隣に "next to me". Since it is clear from context that you are talking about her relation to your own location though you can omit the pronoun and be understood. It is only necessary if clarification is required. 父の隣に Next to my father、兄の隣に Next to my older brother、祖母の隣に Next to my grandmother, etc.
The sentence you wrote is grammatically correct but it wouldn't really be an appropriate answer to your hypothetical question. If you were trying to answer, "Who's next to you?" you'd want to use the exact provided answer (if anything you'd omit the 隣に because it's obvious from the question the other person asked).
The sentence you wrote places a specific emphasis on "the location next to me." It also carries a nuance of contrasting the location next to you with other locations, like you'd specifically pointing out, "the location next to me, and not any other location." It would be a more appropriate response to a question like, "Where's your mother?", "Is your mother inside the house?", etc.