Aye, it is a verb. It's an archaic, polite form of ある, in other words, an older, politer, form of です, performing the same function of adding politeness to a sentence.
It breaks down like this - ご is the same ご / お you see elsewhere, roughly "honourable", ざい is from ざる, which is an archaic alternative to ある, and ます you're familiar with, as the polite verb form from a plain verb form.
Right, they do that to characterize his speech as formal, often more polite, and archaic. It's the Japanese equivalent to putting e on the end of nouns, st on the end of verbs and scattering in "whither, wherefore, thee/thou, etc" to make dialogue seem historical. Often with as much care as in English (I.E. Not very authentic ;) ).
Hayaku is an adverb only in the sense that it connects with a verb. Consider that "ookiku suru = make big (not bigly) " and "mijikaku suru = make short (not shortly)" and realize that the renyoukei of "hayai" (hayaku) is not an English adverb. It is a conjunctive form.
I don't think that is accurate. I believe that in this case, it is essentially a more emphatic version of "good morning" as a greeting to another person. Kind of like the difference between just saying "hello" versus "I'm very happy to see you!" Both are basically just saying hi, but one is far more significant or emphatic. On the other hand, saying "A very good morning" wouldn't really be a greeting at all, it would just be commenting about the morning itself but not directed toward another person. I could be wrong though...
"A very good morning to you" is a thing but honestly it sounds more like a farewell than a greeting.
Duolingo's translations/suggestions for each word made me quite confused as they don't translate very well (good morning | very much) for this specific case. I'll go with what most people are saying, that it's just "good morning (polite)"
Actually adding ございます doesn't make ありがとう polite, adding ございます at the end makes it Thank you, used with strangers, teachers, and bosses. Adding ございます at the end of such sentences always points out the fact that the one we are speaking to is a superior or is a stranger. To friends or people close to us (who is not an elder), we just use どうも (Thanks) or ありがとう(Thank you). So as you can see there is no way that adding ございます makes ありがとう polite. Where as in おはようございます,ございます is used to make it polite.
Gozaimasu is a polite conjugations of gozaru an archaic way to say "to be" so you can add it to ohayou since it means early or earlyness or arigatou which means difficult to be or to exist. But konnichiha and konbanha are topics, literally saying this day is? Or this evening is? You can add to be to those
This is one of Japanese polite expressions. Gozaimasu is used to express respect to the listener by lowering the speaker's position (sorry, too complicated!) Ohayo gozaimasu means You are early (to be there) and I respect it (something like that) and Arigatoh gozaimasu means I appreciate your kindness. On contrary, Konnichiwa/Konbanwa simply means How are you today/tonight? therefore no respects. But the best is to memorise each expression. :)
O = an honorific prefix, the only meaning is politeness.
Hayai = an adjective (keiyoudoushi) , meaning "fast" or "early."
Hayou = haya(k)u, with the "k" dropped, and written as prounouned. This form, with the honorific "o" (e.g., "ohayou") is always used with "gozaimasu."
Gozaru = an honorific verb that is simply a polite way of saying "is/are."
Gozaimasu = "gozaru + masu" a polite form of an honorific verb. All it means is "is" or "are." Unless you are trying to sound like a sixteenth century samurai don't use "gozaru" except in stock polite expressions.
Literally "Ohayou gozaimasu" means, in the politest of terms, "(You) are (up and at it) early" or something like that. "Good morning" is a conversational equivalent, not a literal translation.
Haha! Good thinking, but you wouldn't say that to someone in real life. ("Good morning polite!") Duo expects a translation, but it also isn't great at showing context. Knowing that おはようございます is simply the polite way of saying "Good morning" to someone is great, and Duo just kind of hopes you pick up on the fact that it has bigger emphasis on politeness.
This is what Japanese speakers say where English speakers would say "good morning." That is where the correspondence ends. Not only does it not mean either "good" or "morning" its grammar is complicated and different from what is used in most ordinary sentences. It is actually a polite way of saying, "You are early." It is a good idea to treat it as a vocabulary item.
O (honorific prefix) +
hayoo (elided form of hayaku, renyookei of hayai, "early") +
gozai (renyookei of gozaru, "to be") +
-masu (sentence final form of the polite suffix) =
"It is/you are early" (expressed in terms of great respect).
(Just memorize the expression, use it to say "good morning" but don't try to use the syntax unless you are into honorifics.)
Japanese has evolved considerably. Check out the difference between spoken and classical Japanese in the verb charts in the Kojien or any other scholarly Japanese to Japanese dictionary.
Some of the greetings and stock expressions, like "ohayou gozaimasu," retain classical features and are linguistically complicated. This one literally means no more than "You are early" said in a respectful way. It is, however, the standard first greeting of the day in Japanese. Normally that equates functionally to "Good morning" in English. (Since it doesn't literally mean "good morning" people coming to work a night shift might even be greeted with "ohayou gozaimasu.") It is good to know what such expressions mean literally, but the important thing to know first is what they equate to functionally.
"Arigatou goziamasu" literally means something like "It is hard/rare for (whatever is being referenced) to be" but "Thank you" is the functional and reasonable translation.
Yes, informally. You wouldn't say this to someone like a teacher or a boss, but to a friend or family member you may. In formal situations you would add "ございます", "gozaimasu", or "ございました", "gozaimashita", if it is very formal, such as meeting someone important for the first time.
Grammatically, ども is an adverb while ございます is a verb. The verb means "is" but using it conveys respect or honor. The adverb probably means something like "very" and it seems to intensify the expression with which it is used. As an adverb, it implies a following verbal when it is used alone. So, どうもう by itself implies the rest of a polite "thank you."
"ございます“ has social significance in that it expresses respect but, basically, it simply means "is/are." “おはよう“ is a conjunctive form of "はやい“ which simply means "early" but, because it is not a sentence ending form, it implies an understood verb. "おはようございます“ is simply the complete polite expression, "(You) are early." It's more formal than "おはよう“ without a verb but it means the same. "Good morning" is a functional translation because that's what we say in English but it is NOT A LITERAL TRANSLATION.
Ohayo and ohayo gozaimasu should have something to differentiate between them in this exercise. I thought it was going to be very good morning, but that was wrong. Having them to appear to mean the exact same thing isnt going to be helpful if you dont know of this polite form already
It is formal, but that is not the problem. It is what the Japanese say as a morning greeting. It does not contain words for "good" or "morning." It says very politely, "You are early." Just memorize it and use it when what you would say in English is, "Good morning." (You can drop the "gozaimasu" to be more informal.)
If you mean the "o" at the end of "ohayo," the answer is complicated. First, realize that it is a long "o," written よう (yo u) in Japanese. When a Japanese adjective (keiyoushi) such as hayai comes before the verb "gozaru" it takes this form rather than the usual conjunctive form (renyoukei). So, you get "ohayou gozaimasu" instead of "ohayaku gozaimasu" (and "yoroshuu gozaimasu" rather than "yoroshiku gozaimasu").
The form itself is actually an elided version of the -ku form. "Hayaku" with an honorific "o" is "ohayaku." The "k" drops out and you get "ohayau" which was pronounced "ohayou" and came to be written that way when the kana system was reformed.
おはよう is what the Japanese say when English speakers would say "good morning" but おはよう DOES NOT LITERALLY MEAN "good morning." It is formed from はやい and means "fast, early." The お is honorific and the "よう" is an old ending that is used before "gozaimasu." The form itself tells you that "gozaimasu" is understood when not actually said. "Gozaimasu" expresses respect for the person(s) addressed but it's meaning is simply "is" or "are." Again, "good morning" is a functional but NOT A LITERAL TRANSLATION of what the Japanese actually means.