I understand what the function of ございます is, but I'd be curious to know what it means literally. The ます suffix implies that it is technically a verb, no?
Aye, it is a verb. It's an archaic, polite form of ある, in other words, an older, politer, form of です, performing the same function of adding politeness to a sentence.
It breaks down like this - ご is the same ご / お you see elsewhere, roughly "honourable", ざい is from ざる, which is an archaic alternative to ある, and ます you're familiar with, as the polite verb form from a plain verb form.
Your comment reminded me of something Rurouni Kenshin always says, "でござる" at the end of his sentences. I've read somewhere that it's old Japanese, related to です. The show is set it the Meiji after all.
Right, they do that to characterize his speech as formal, often more polite, and archaic. It's the Japanese equivalent to putting e on the end of nouns, st on the end of verbs and scattering in "whither, wherefore, thee/thou, etc" to make dialogue seem historical. Often with as much care as in English (I.E. Not very authentic ;) ).
Actually, o + hayaku but the K is elided to produce o+ hayau which is pronounced and written ohayou in modern kana.
Hayaku is an adverb only in the sense that it connects with a verb. Consider that "ookiku suru = make big (not bigly) " and "mijikaku suru = make short (not shortly)" and realize that the renyoukei of "hayai" (hayaku) is not an English adverb. It is a conjunctive form.
I don't think that is accurate. I believe that in this case, it is essentially a more emphatic version of "good morning" as a greeting to another person. Kind of like the difference between just saying "hello" versus "I'm very happy to see you!" Both are basically just saying hi, but one is far more significant or emphatic. On the other hand, saying "A very good morning" wouldn't really be a greeting at all, it would just be commenting about the morning itself but not directed toward another person. I could be wrong though...
"A very good morning to you" is a thing but honestly it sounds more like a farewell than a greeting.
Duolingo's translations/suggestions for each word made me quite confused as they don't translate very well (good morning | very much) for this specific case. I'll go with what most people are saying, that it's just "good morning (polite)"
You're correct, just saying "ohayou" would be a casual "good morning" you can use among your peers, while "ohayou gozaimasu" is a polite "good morning".
You can get even more informal and use "oha", which is our equivalent to saying " 'mornin". It's used more often in Kansai dialect though and I wouldn't dare be that casual as a rule
Though no one says that anymore a very good morning to you its like Mary Poppins style of speaking not to criticize
An example that's not a greeting: it can be used to make arigatou polite: ありがとうございます。
Actually adding ございます doesn't make ありがとう polite, adding ございます at the end makes it Thank you, used with strangers, teachers, and bosses. Adding ございます at the end of such sentences always points out the fact that the one we are speaking to is a superior or is a stranger. To friends or people close to us (who is not an elder), we just use どうも (Thanks) or ありがとう(Thank you). So as you can see there is no way that adding ございます makes ありがとう polite. Where as in おはようございます,ございます is used to make it polite.
" Adding ございます at the end of such sentences always points out the fact that the one we are speaking to is a superior or is a stranger." Doesn't that mean making it polite. sorry I don't get it at all.
"Arigatou" is an elided form of "arigataku" (drop the "k" and the remaining "au" is pronounced and written as a long "o"). This form is idiomatic with "gozaru." Even when "gozaimasu" isn't said, the use of this form implies it and some level of politeness.
I don't think so. I've never heard anyone say "konnichiwa gozaimasu"
Gozaimasu is a polite conjugations of gozaru an archaic way to say "to be" so you can add it to ohayou since it means early or earlyness or arigatou which means difficult to be or to exist. But konnichiha and konbanha are topics, literally saying this day is? Or this evening is? You can add to be to those
Technically, that's what they literally mean even without the ございます.
If you are unsure of when or why to use "gozaimasu" it may be a good idea to research when/where it's important/appropriate to be polite.
This is one of Japanese polite expressions. Gozaimasu is used to express respect to the listener by lowering the speaker's position (sorry, too complicated!) Ohayo gozaimasu means You are early (to be there) and I respect it (something like that) and Arigatoh gozaimasu means I appreciate your kindness. On contrary, Konnichiwa/Konbanwa simply means How are you today/tonight? therefore no respects. But the best is to memorise each expression. :)
K N O W L E D G E thank you for this also take this Lingot for the niceness :)
It makes certain phrases take a polite form. See some of the comments above for examples.
"-mashita" is the past tense of "-masu". It wouldn't be appropriate in this case where you telling someone (in the present tense) "good morning".
Your be literally saying it isn't early ie. it isn't morning. おはようございます doesn't literally mean 'good morning'.
I put "Good Morning (Polite)" in hopes that the answer would be accepted but it said it was wrong so Q^Q do I just say good morning or...??
I get your thinking, I put 'great morning' haha, but it didn't work. Just say good morning!
Haha! Good thinking, but you wouldn't say that to someone in real life. ("Good morning polite!") Duo expects a translation, but it also isn't great at showing context. Knowing that おはようございます is simply the polite way of saying "Good morning" to someone is great, and Duo just kind of hopes you pick up on the fact that it has bigger emphasis on politeness.
If I'm at the University, it would be culturally correct to use this form to say "good morning" to a professor?
The "gozaimasu" part makes it formal. You would more likely use this with teachers, bosses, and other people that you are not informally aquainted with. If you are having a conversation with a friend or close family member, the you would more likely say "ohayou".
Japanese is different from English, おはようございます。like "very" good morning to you.
To my surprise (and amusement) "Top of the morning to you." Is also accepted.
It has a very similar meaning, yes. Even based on the same idea of "morning" and "greetings" going hand-in-hand.
More and more I get the feeling japanese is an old language that refused to evolve with the passing of time.
Japanese has evolved considerably. Check out the difference between spoken and classical Japanese in the verb charts in the Kojien or any other scholarly Japanese to Japanese dictionary.
Some of the greetings and stock expressions, like "ohayou gozaimasu," retain classical features and are linguistically complicated. This one literally means no more than "You are early" said in a respectful way. It is, however, the standard first greeting of the day in Japanese. Normally that equates functionally to "Good morning" in English. (Since it doesn't literally mean "good morning" people coming to work a night shift might even be greeted with "ohayou gozaimasu.") It is good to know what such expressions mean literally, but the important thing to know first is what they equate to functionally.
"Arigatou goziamasu" literally means something like "It is hard/rare for (whatever is being referenced) to be" but "Thank you" is the functional and reasonable translation.
It is not a matter of language, but stratified society. They put more importance to status between speakers and need a language that reflects that.
O (honorific prefix) +
hayoo (elided form of hayaku, renyookei of hayai, "early") +
gozai (renyookei of gozaru, "to be") +
-masu (sentence final form of the polite suffix) =
"It is/you are early" (expressed in terms of great respect).
(Just memorize the expression, use it to say "good morning" but don't try to use the syntax unless you are into honorifics.)
O = an honorific prefix, the only meaning is politeness.
Hayai = an adjective (keiyoudoushi) , meaning "fast" or "early."
Hayou = haya(k)u, with the "k" dropped, and written as prounouned. This form, with the honorific "o" (e.g., "ohayou") is always used with "gozaimasu."
Gozaru = an honorific verb that is simply a polite way of saying "is/are."
Gozaimasu = "gozaru + masu" a polite form of an honorific verb. All it means is "is" or "are." Unless you are trying to sound like a sixteenth century samurai don't use "gozaru" except in stock polite expressions.
Literally "Ohayou gozaimasu" means, in the politest of terms, "(You) are (up and at it) early" or something like that. "Good morning" is a conversational equivalent, not a literal translation.
There really isn't a way to translate this into English. It is a more formal way of saying "good morning".
I don't understand why is 'hello' wrong, I understand that ございます makes it more formal and all, but as far as I know, おはようございます doesn't literally or always mean good morning, as I heard that it's sometimes used to greet workers coming for a night shift or some other context that is not necessarily in the morning?
This is what Japanese speakers say where English speakers would say "good morning." That is where the correspondence ends. Not only does it not mean either "good" or "morning" its grammar is complicated and different from what is used in most ordinary sentences. It is actually a polite way of saying, "You are early." It is a good idea to treat it as a vocabulary item.
When I compose the solution with 2 of the offered blocks
[おはよう] + [ございます]
then duolingo says my solution is wrong. Only the 3-block solution
[おはよう] + [ござい] + [ます]
is accepted. To me both look the same. Am I missing something here?
The only thing I can think is sometimes Duo is very sneaky and has what looks the same at first glance, but one of them has an extra character, so you end up doubling up. It's caught me out with this a couple of times! Especially when I've been rushing through and/or sleepy.
I checked that. The characters are absolutely identical. Not even a small kana instead of a normal one.
It's something like 'the best morning', I mean more polite than simply good morning??? Or what?
In Japanese, the polite form and the casual form typically mean the exact same thing ("ohayou" and "ohayou gozaimasu" both mean "good morning"). The difference is who you can use which form with, not the meaning of the words ("ohayou" can only be used with your peers, while "ohayou gozaimasu" can be used with people who are "above you").
I understand that "gozaimasu" at the end is the polite form. But Duolingo translates "ohayoo gozaimasu" by "Good morning to you" and not by "A very good morning" or something else. So can we also translate "gozaimasu" by "to you" or is it just a translation for that particular case ?
It's just this particular case, and really you can just translate "ohayou gozaimasu" as "good morning".
"I put good morning to you" I thought the "ございます" indicated you
ありがとう = Thanks ありがとうございます = Thank you
Is this incorrect?
ございます is used to denote politeness, (as far as I can tell), and while you would probably use thanks when talking to your friends or family, thank you would be the more proper/polite term. Hope this helps.
If I say: "Arigato gozaimasu" translate into English is : "Thank you very much" and "gozaimasu" translate into English (by Duo) is "very much" so "Arigato gozaimasu" translate into English is "Thank you very much" > right. But "Ohayou gozaimasu" translate into English is "Good morning" or "Good morning to you". "Ohayou gozaimasu" is "Good morning" because it is still "Good morning" but it is more polite than "Ohayou gozaimasu"
Ohayo and ohayo gozaimasu should have something to differentiate between them in this exercise. I thought it was going to be very good morning, but that was wrong. Having them to appear to mean the exact same thing isnt going to be helpful if you dont know of this polite form already
Japanese doesn't always translate word for word into English. This is true for many languages. And as many have already commented ありがとうございます and おはようございます do not literally mean thank you and Good morning.
Yes, informally. You wouldn't say this to someone like a teacher or a boss, but to a friend or family member you may. In formal situations you would add "ございます", "gozaimasu", or "ございました", "gozaimashita", if it is very formal, such as meeting someone important for the first time.
Its finny, because i can only remember good morning by remembering that it sounds like Ohio
Omitting the verb is less formal. There is no difference in meaning. The form "ohayou" implies a following "gozaimasu."
Grammatically, ども is an adverb while ございます is a verb. The verb means "is" but using it conveys respect or honor. The adverb probably means something like "very" and it seems to intensify the expression with which it is used. As an adverb, it implies a following verbal when it is used alone. So, どうもう by itself implies the rest of a polite "thank you."
I said good morning very much because thats what it translated to when I tapped on the word. It didnt like it
What does ございます mean?? (In this case and in genera) in this case is it just to be more polite?
"Gozaimasu" comes from "gozaru" meaning "to be (am, is, are, etc.)" and is used in polite expressions and honorific speech. It requires the form "ohayou" rather than "hayaku" (from "hayai").
"Ohayou gozaimasu" is the standard greeting for the early part of the day. So, "Good Morning" is a reasonable translation but its literal meaning is roughly the same as "hayai (desu)." The grammar of stock polite expressions is often archaic or complex.
i heard that it literally meant "it is early" which is why it has such a strict time table for when you can use it.