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  5. "おはようございます。"

"おはようございます。"

Translation:Good morning.

June 15, 2017

102 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/k17u

I understand what the function of ございます is, but I'd be curious to know what it means literally. The ます suffix implies that it is technically a verb, no?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JohnPMChappell

Aye, it is a verb. It's an archaic, polite form of ある, in other words, an older, politer, form of です, performing the same function of adding politeness to a sentence.

It breaks down like this - ご is the same ご / お you see elsewhere, roughly "honourable", ざい is from ざる, which is an archaic alternative to ある, and ます you're familiar with, as the polite verb form from a plain verb form.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/charmantMode

Your comment reminded me of something Rurouni Kenshin always says, "でござる" at the end of his sentences. I've read somewhere that it's old Japanese, related to です. The show is set it the Meiji after all.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JohnPMChappell

Right, they do that to characterize his speech as formal, often more polite, and archaic. It's the Japanese equivalent to putting e on the end of nouns, st on the end of verbs and scattering in "whither, wherefore, thee/thou, etc" to make dialogue seem historical. Often with as much care as in English (I.E. Not very authentic ;) ).


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PatataDancer

"good morning (ohayou) very much (kosaimasu)"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnaLydiate

Actually, おはよう is お (honorific) +はやい+よ - literally, it's early!!!!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

Actually, o + hayaku but the K is elided to produce o+ hayau which is pronounced and written ohayou in modern kana.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnaLydiate

Dan, that makes no grammatical sense - adverb and verb to be?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

Hayaku is an adverb only in the sense that it connects with a verb. Consider that "ookiku suru = make big (not bigly) " and "mijikaku suru = make short (not shortly)" and realize that the renyoukei of "hayai" (hayaku) is not an English adverb. It is a conjunctive form.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DipanshuJu

I was thinking 'Gozaimas' would make this 'A very good morning'


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AdamHill409533

I don't think that is accurate. I believe that in this case, it is essentially a more emphatic version of "good morning" as a greeting to another person. Kind of like the difference between just saying "hello" versus "I'm very happy to see you!" Both are basically just saying hi, but one is far more significant or emphatic. On the other hand, saying "A very good morning" wouldn't really be a greeting at all, it would just be commenting about the morning itself but not directed toward another person. I could be wrong though...


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AzoreanEve

"A very good morning to you" is a thing but honestly it sounds more like a farewell than a greeting.

Duolingo's translations/suggestions for each word made me quite confused as they don't translate very well (good morning | very much) for this specific case. I'll go with what most people are saying, that it's just "good morning (polite)"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IsolaCiao

You're correct, just saying "ohayou" would be a casual "good morning" you can use among your peers, while "ohayou gozaimasu" is a polite "good morning".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dandelionmagic

i usually think of it as " 'morning" compared to "good morning"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Kestenvarn

This is easier to understand


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Juusan013

You can get even more informal and use "oha", which is our equivalent to saying " 'mornin". It's used more often in Kansai dialect though and I wouldn't dare be that casual as a rule


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PricelessCloud

Though no one says that anymore a very good morning to you its like Mary Poppins style of speaking not to criticize


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Kestenvarn

Do you wish me a good morning, or mean that it is a good morning whether I want it or not; or that you feel good this morning; or that it is a morning to be good on?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mvinicius563

What is the "gozaimasu" at the end?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/woahitscaylea

It makes the greeting polite.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Jake3.14

Can it be used to make all greetings polite?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/narion_k

An example that's not a greeting: it can be used to make arigatou polite: ありがとうございます。


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Pavithra_Rajesh

Actually adding ございます doesn't make  ありがとう polite, adding ございます at the end makes it Thank you, used with strangers, teachers, and bosses. Adding ございます at the end of such sentences always points out the fact that the one we are speaking to is a superior or is a stranger. To friends or people close to us (who is not an elder), we just use どうも (Thanks) or ありがとう(Thank you). So as you can see there is no way that adding ございます makes ありがとう polite. Where as in おはようございます,ございます is used to make it polite.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Skye785087

" Adding ございます at the end of such sentences always points out the fact that the one we are speaking to is a superior or is a stranger." Doesn't that mean making it polite. sorry I don't get it at all.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

"Arigatou" is an elided form of "arigataku" (drop the "k" and the remaining "au" is pronounced and written as a long "o"). This form is idiomatic with "gozaru." Even when "gozaimasu" isn't said, the use of this form implies it and some level of politeness.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CoolBeanColleen

I don't think so. I've never heard anyone say "konnichiwa gozaimasu"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Mr_Elementle

Gozaimasu is a polite conjugations of gozaru an archaic way to say "to be" so you can add it to ohayou since it means early or earlyness or arigatou which means difficult to be or to exist. But konnichiha and konbanha are topics, literally saying this day is? Or this evening is? You can add to be to those


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/tonkotsuLover

Technically, that's what they literally mean even without the ございます.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Mrcqm1

If you are unsure of when or why to use "gozaimasu" it may be a good idea to research when/where it's important/appropriate to be polite.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LouiseChiL2

What does "gozaimasu" means?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/KMosuzu

This is one of Japanese polite expressions. Gozaimasu is used to express respect to the listener by lowering the speaker's position (sorry, too complicated!) Ohayo gozaimasu means You are early (to be there) and I respect it (something like that) and Arigatoh gozaimasu means I appreciate your kindness. On contrary, Konnichiwa/Konbanwa simply means How are you today/tonight? therefore no respects. But the best is to memorise each expression. :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Chaos_Hawk

It makes certain phrases take a polite form. See some of the comments above for examples.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Danmoller

And what about "masta" instead of "masu"?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IsolaCiao

"-mashita" is the past tense of "-masu". It wouldn't be appropriate in this case where you telling someone (in the present tense) "good morning".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Mr_Elementle

Could i tell someone i don't like ohayou gozaimasen?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnaLydiate

Your be literally saying it isn't early ie. it isn't morning. おはようございます doesn't literally mean 'good morning'.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

It is the "-masu" form of the honorific verb "gozaru," "to be."


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

O = an honorific prefix, the only meaning is politeness.

Hayai = an adjective (keiyoudoushi) , meaning "fast" or "early."

Hayou = haya(k)u, with the "k" dropped, and written as prounouned. This form, with the honorific "o" (e.g., "ohayou") is always used with "gozaimasu."

Gozaru = an honorific verb that is simply a polite way of saying "is/are."

Gozaimasu = "gozaru + masu" a polite form of an honorific verb. All it means is "is" or "are." Unless you are trying to sound like a sixteenth century samurai don't use "gozaru" except in stock polite expressions.

Literally "Ohayou gozaimasu" means, in the politest of terms, "(You) are (up and at it) early" or something like that. "Good morning" is a conversational equivalent, not a literal translation.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnaLydiate

おはよう is はやい+よ - it's early!!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

That won't hold up when you get further into the grammar, e. g., it won't explain “よろしゅうごさいます“


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LishaOutca

I put "Good Morning (Polite)" in hopes that the answer would be accepted but it said it was wrong so Q^Q do I just say good morning or...??


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/nick-33

I get your thinking, I put 'great morning' haha, but it didn't work. Just say good morning!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Chaos_Hawk

Haha! Good thinking, but you wouldn't say that to someone in real life. ("Good morning polite!") Duo expects a translation, but it also isn't great at showing context. Knowing that おはようございます is simply the polite way of saying "Good morning" to someone is great, and Duo just kind of hopes you pick up on the fact that it has bigger emphasis on politeness.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JorgeSinval

If I'm at the University, it would be culturally correct to use this form to say "good morning" to a professor?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Amilarah2

To my surprise (and amusement) "Top of the morning to you." Is also accepted.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Chaos_Hawk

It has a very similar meaning, yes. Even based on the same idea of "morning" and "greetings" going hand-in-hand.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

This is what Japanese speakers say where English speakers would say "good morning." That is where the correspondence ends. Not only does it not mean either "good" or "morning" its grammar is complicated and different from what is used in most ordinary sentences. It is actually a polite way of saying, "You are early." It is a good idea to treat it as a vocabulary item.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Hannaha70093

The "gozaimasu" part makes it formal. You would more likely use this with teachers, bosses, and other people that you are not informally aquainted with. If you are having a conversation with a friend or close family member, the you would more likely say "ohayou".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

O (honorific prefix) +

hayoo (elided form of hayaku, renyookei of hayai, "early") +

gozai (renyookei of gozaru, "to be") +

-masu (sentence final form of the polite suffix) =

"It is/you are early" (expressed in terms of great respect).

(Just memorize the expression, use it to say "good morning" but don't try to use the syntax unless you are into honorifics.)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rimas.jana

is it always written in Hiragana ? doesn't it have a Kanji form ?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IsolaCiao

It's typically written in hiragana.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/timoteoandre

More and more I get the feeling japanese is an old language that refused to evolve with the passing of time.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

Japanese has evolved considerably. Check out the difference between spoken and classical Japanese in the verb charts in the Kojien or any other scholarly Japanese to Japanese dictionary.

Some of the greetings and stock expressions, like "ohayou gozaimasu," retain classical features and are linguistically complicated. This one literally means no more than "You are early" said in a respectful way. It is, however, the standard first greeting of the day in Japanese. Normally that equates functionally to "Good morning" in English. (Since it doesn't literally mean "good morning" people coming to work a night shift might even be greeted with "ohayou gozaimasu.") It is good to know what such expressions mean literally, but the important thing to know first is what they equate to functionally.

"Arigatou goziamasu" literally means something like "It is hard/rare for (whatever is being referenced) to be" but "Thank you" is the functional and reasonable translation.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MrCurser

It is not a matter of language, but stratified society. They put more importance to status between speakers and need a language that reflects that.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Asiacalhoun

So is gozaimas used to be polite, does it mean "very much" or both???


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

Neither. "Gozaimasu" just means "is." Using it conveys politeness.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Julian131313

When do I know は is pronounced Ha and not Wa?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

As a particle it is "wa." Otherwise, "ha."


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Mia35743

Isn't good morning just おはよう???


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/kdeeg103

Yes, informally. You wouldn't say this to someone like a teacher or a boss, but to a friend or family member you may. In formal situations you would add "ございます", "gozaimasu", or "ございました", "gozaimashita", if it is very formal, such as meeting someone important for the first time.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LeonardoDo971611

What's the difference betwin Ohayogozaimasu and just ohayo?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

Omitting the verb is less formal. There is no difference in meaning. The form "ohayou" implies a following "gozaimasu."


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Kenopso

What us the difference between ございます and どうも?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

Grammatically, ども is an adverb while ございます is a verb. The verb means "is" but using it conveys respect or honor. The adverb probably means something like "very" and it seems to intensify the expression with which it is used. As an adverb, it implies a following verbal when it is used alone. So, どうもう by itself implies the rest of a polite "thank you."


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/NeysaRomer

What does ございます mean?? (In this case and in genera) in this case is it just to be more polite?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

"Gozaimasu" comes from "gozaru" meaning "to be (am, is, are, etc.)" and is used in polite expressions and honorific speech. It requires the form "ohayou" rather than "hayaku" (from "hayai").


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

"Ohayou gozaimasu" is the standard greeting for the early part of the day. So, "Good Morning" is a reasonable translation but its literal meaning is roughly the same as "hayai (desu)." The grammar of stock polite expressions is often archaic or complex.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/aikoashley

Why is ございます next to おはよう if the words translation doesn't change isn't that redundant?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

"ございます“ has social significance in that it expresses respect but, basically, it simply means "is/are." “おはよう“ is a conjunctive form of "はやい“ which simply means "early" but, because it is not a sentence ending form, it implies an understood verb. "おはようございます“ is simply the complete polite expression, "(You) are early." It's more formal than "おはよう“ without a verb but it means the same. "Good morning" is a functional translation because that's what we say in English but it is NOT A LITERAL TRANSLATION.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/kairu260485

Ohayo and ohayo gozaimasu should have something to differentiate between them in this exercise. I thought it was going to be very good morning, but that was wrong. Having them to appear to mean the exact same thing isnt going to be helpful if you dont know of this polite form already


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnaLydiate

Japanese doesn't always translate word for word into English. This is true for many languages. And as many have already commented ありがとうございます and おはようございます do not literally mean thank you and Good morning.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Jekrispard

What does "。" means in おはようございます。?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

That's a Japanese punctuation mark, a full stop or period.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Yasmin637828

Why is it extended, by that I mean shouldn't it be ohayo only?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Sha._

it would be more polite if you add "gozaimasu", but it's fine if you don't want to add that


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ZanninaMargariti

Shouldnt it be "Ohaao"? Where is it the "i"?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/nick-33

The 'yo' character よ makes it o-ha-yo


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IsolaCiao

おはよう (o - ha - yo - u).


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ray455486

Why is this good morning so long. Is it the formal version?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

It is formal, but that is not the problem. It is what the Japanese say as a morning greeting. It does not contain words for "good" or "morning." It says very politely, "You are early." Just memorize it and use it when what you would say in English is, "Good morning." (You can drop the "gozaimasu" to be more informal.)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AustinChee6

Why is there a extra part when you say them together. "おはようございます。


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

What do you mean by extra?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/EliHurst1

whats the diference between "おはようございます。 and just おはよう ? thanks. sorry this is kinda hard to follow XD


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

Excellent functional translation, but if you are serious about learning the language you should be aware of its literal meaning and grammar. Otherwise, all you learn is to say "Good morning" and nothing else about it is transferable knowledge. E


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/galevi64

Whats goZa imas ?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

It's gozai + masu, the connective form of the verb gozaru, which is an honorific "to be." It shows respect for the person addressed but it just means "is."


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ChristaRag1

can someone tell me why that "o" is there at the end?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

If you mean the "o" at the end of "ohayo," the answer is complicated. First, realize that it is a long "o," written よう (yo u) in Japanese. When a Japanese adjective (keiyoushi) such as hayai comes before the verb "gozaru" it takes this form rather than the usual conjunctive form (renyoukei). So, you get "ohayou gozaimasu" instead of "ohayaku gozaimasu" (and "yoroshuu gozaimasu" rather than "yoroshiku gozaimasu").

The form itself is actually an elided version of the -ku form. "Hayaku" with an honorific "o" is "ohayaku." The "k" drops out and you get "ohayau" which was pronounced "ohayou" and came to be written that way when the kana system was reformed.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Savannah323921

I do not understand the function of this. Good morning = おはよう (literally). What does the ございます add?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dan553966

おはよう is what the Japanese say when English speakers would say "good morning" but おはよう DOES NOT LITERALLY MEAN "good morning." It is formed from はやい and means "fast, early." The お is honorific and the "よう" is an old ending that is used before "gozaimasu." The form itself tells you that "gozaimasu" is understood when not actually said. "Gozaimasu" expresses respect for the person(s) addressed but it's meaning is simply "is" or "are." Again, "good morning" is a functional but NOT A LITERAL TRANSLATION of what the Japanese actually means.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RobloxGeek1

I thought good morning was just おはよう what does ございます。 mean? i thought it ment hello, good morning but just good morning? im confused

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