"I like to work."
Hataraku is a verb. Adding koto or no to a verb in plain form makes it function like a noun (similarly in English we use the ing form to make a verb into a noun). There's also the noun form (turn the ending u into i or remove the ru for iru/eru verbs) but it's not as common and can sound awkward (yomi ga suki desu vs yomu koto ga suki desu). It tends to be used more for compound words eg kesu (erase) keshigomu (eraser).
I'm not fluent so i hope someone proficient can elaborate on this.
I've been going back and forth between the site and the app the past few days. In the app they just write it as "はたらき". My first time encountering the word on the site they use the kanji. Along with く on the end which confused me even more. To top it all off, as Malariaman said, it wasn't pronounced when I clicked on it.
I feel like Duo should also be introducing the dictionary/plain form of verbs rather than just the pre-ます form. Especially with the matching section. It could help to avoid a lot of confusion. The dictionary forms are just as important especially when it comes to casual conversations.
Finally a concise explanation of the "koto" conversion. Everywhere i looked, i could only find the first part (to turn a verb into a noun), but never understood why it was needed anyway, and the comparison with the "ing" in English is just brilliant, and finally helped me understand the point. Totally worth an ingot, Thank you!
When you are describing an action you would nominalize it and the -ing (gerund) form is one of the most common ways of doing so.
In "I like working" vs "I am working", the former is a noun (you a describing your enjoyment of an action, 'like' would be the verb there), the latter is a verb (you are doing the action)
You can see more examples and an explanation of this here:
I think it depends on the context as i have a Japanese-published dictionary that uses wa with suki in example sentences. Maybe like
Nani ga suki desu ka? Ichigo ga suki desu.
Kore wa ichigo desu. Ichigo wa suki desu!
Wa seems more natural in the second example if you're talking about strawberries in general and you're mentioning that you like them. Ga to me implies you're identifying what it is that you like ie strawberries.
I don't remember which resource i was using, but it explained that ga is used when "a discovery is made". So I guess when new information is presented.
Using your example, the first is asking for new information, whereas the second has it already presented.
I'm not 100% sure if this is accurate, so if I'm wrong or misunderstood, please correct me.
こと and の in this case are both used as nominalizers. They are usually a choice, you dont have to worry about which one to use, but there is a slight difference. こと is when you're talking objectively, while の is used when you're talking subjectively. So your textbook wasnt wrong in using の ^^
しごと is the noun for "job/profession," はたらく is the verb "work."
Just like in English where "work" and "job" can often be used interchangeably (eg "I'm going to work" vs. "I'm going to my job"), they often are in Japanese in cases like these, as well.
So しごとがすきです could be translated as "I like to work [at my job]" or "I like my job" and both would be correct.
It doesn't work in reverse, though, just like in English. If you were saying that you like to do handy work around the house on weekends, for instance, you couldn't use しごと, since that isn't your job/profession.
Shigoto is.. Like a job.. I like to go to work. Whereas hataraku (働く).. Is more like the general act of working. At least that's how i understand it... Koto (or no) is how you might turn a verb into a noun.. So you can use it somewhere other then at the end of the sentence. Ga.. In this case anyway, is a set pattern.. It goes with suki.
So the way I see this, 仕事 and 働くare completely different words that have similar meanings. 働くis the verb form "to work" and 仕事 is the noun form "work". A more literal translation of the sentence in question would be, "I like work", but the word "to" is added to imply context in the sentence. A more work-around translation would be something like, "I like doing work."
I'm not fully aware of all the usages of 働き so I don't know if it really suits this sentence.
However if you use 働くのが instead, it should be accepted. You're nominalizing the verb 働く by adding の.
There seems to be a reason as for why 働き isn't normally followed by the subject particle が. Doing a google search on 仕事が gives way more results than 働きが. I think the reason might be because 働き is used to connect to other words (nouns, verbs, helper verbs, etc) and not particles.
Also, by using Weblio, you can see there are no results for 働きが好き (https://ejje.weblio.jp/sentence/content/%22%E5%83%8D%E3%81%8D%E3%81%8C%E5%A5%BD%E3%81%8D%22) and there are multiple results for 仕事が好き (https://ejje.weblio.jp/sentence/content/%22%E4%BB%95%E4%BA%8B%E3%81%8C%E5%A5%BD%E3%81%8D%22).