"There are eight chairs."
So I'm all for learning to read the kanji, but why is there no Furigana on display, or better yet a button to turn it on or off?
Yeah, I think it would be good to show the pronunciation in hiragana when you tap on a kanji.
I'm so confused about where the numbers go. Previous ones accepted it before が but it says otherwise in this one.
As a rule of thumb, numbers go before the verb, without any particles between them.
If it is placed in front, it has to be 八つのいすがあります. Needs a の particle. But the most natural one is to place the count directly before the verb.
Again, other times have accepted that format. From what I've learned in class the number should be able to go in front if the object without a の since it's in the format of a counter.
It would be very unnatural to put a counter before a noun without の in between.
Sometimes it accepts "number object (ga) there are", other times it only accepts "object (ga) number there are". Why is this?
Exactly. Before the "ga" is the subject, so your example sentence seems to be saying something like "it is an eight-chair"
No that would be です. I do think that word order should work. You are basically using the counter as an adjectives.
How do you pronounce the Japanese for "eight pieces"? It uses a different word than "hachi" (?).
When we count with つ the pronunciation has a different system from when other counters are used. Please check http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/complete/counting
はつ. It isn't always "eight pieces", too, it is used most often as "eight" in the context of counting general objects
I think it can be both, since it is a nuance distinction that is not apparent in the english. But it does not accept は
Seems like it might help if we learn these "piece" (tsu) numbers separately.
This might be covered later but I have a question about the kanji usage here. So the accepted kanji for chair (いす) here is 椅子 which apparently means "chair" + "child" (among other things). So is this referring to a special kind of chair, or is there some other reason for this kanji combination?
子 was originated from pictogram of a small child. The use of suffix like (Chinese) 椅子(chair)，桌子(table)，瓶子(bottle) is a derived use to indicate the object is small. Japanese 椅子 is imported from Chinese.