Translation:There is cold rice.
I don't know if you got an answer, but it isn't "this" because it isn't です ("to be") at the end, it is あります, which means "to exist". It isn't "there" as in "the rice is over there", it's "there" as in "there's cold rice" in the fridge (cold rice exists in the fridge) , for example. Does that help?
Yeah there was no あの so over there made no sense lol. With adjectives though, there are "い" adjectives and "な" adjectives. All い adjectives end in い and can go before a noun without a particle. な adjectives end in whatever (some end in い to confuse you) and have the particle な between it and what it's modifying.
The short grained, sticky Japanese rice tastes better cold. Think sushi. Also, as an ethnic Asian, if you miss the meal and want to eat, the rice comes out of the fridge. You don't want to keep rice outside. https://www.mirror.co.uk/lifestyle/family/reheating-rice-can-make-you-10119500
Arimasu means "exist." When we practice Japanese at home, we use it, for example, to say things like "dinner is ready (dinner exists)," or if one is looking for a snack, "there is cold pizza in the fridge (cold pizza in the fridge exists)." Desu is just a word to use when you are being polite. So, in the example here, picture your teenage daughter coming home saying she is hungry. You aren't going to prepare something for her, and expect her to do it herself. So you tell her- there's cold rice in the pot, and chicken in the fridge. Go and help yourself.
In contrast, in the examples you are giving, someone is eating. They put the rice in their mouth. They grimace and say, "Dangit woman, the rice is cold!"
So correct me if i am wrong, but I think I get something.
が used in a sentence where "existance" of something is the topic ( あります ) can mean "There" pointing the thing that exist.
が in a sentence where it is related to ourself ( です ) が became a "stronger" version of は.
the adjective in the "existence topic world" seems to be before the object like in english. like cold rice つめたいごはん
in some exercise on duo in the "です wolrd" i saw some adjective after, like in french... Or is it because cold rice is concidered like a whole and not like a common object ?
this is just my though down here.