Would these be correct...
I read on http://www.dutchgrammar.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=4363 that kunnen and moeten and prepositions of direction trigger the verb to be omitted sometimes, so would sentences like these be correct?:
- Ik naar de winkel - I'm going to the store
- De baas moet mee - The boss has to come along
- De deur kan af - The door can be closed
- Hij daar naartoe - He's going there
Another question is, how would you tell what the omitted verb is, context?
From your example sentences, only the second sentence is correct.
In Dutch you can omit the main verb if there is an auxiliary verb. So you can say: De baas moet mee(gaan)
The first sentence doesn't have an auxiliary verb, so you cannot omit the main verb. Ik ga naar de winkel
In the third sentence, your translation is not correct. 'The door can be closed' translates to 'De deur kan dichtgedaan worden', but it's perfectly fine to only use the auxiliary verb here. So then it becomes: 'De deur kan dicht'
In the fourth sentence also doesn't have an auxiliary verb, so you cannot omit the main verb. Hij gaat daar naartoe
I don't know exactly how to explain in which context you can see what the omitted veb is., but I hope these example sentences make it a litle more clearer for you .
Thanks! Stuff like this makes learning Dutch so frustrating since it seems so random, but every language has quirks and Dutch is a cool language so I'll just keep learning :)
What does afsluiten mean because I have that written down as 'to close'?