Translation:The movie has not started yet.
Here we have an intransitive verb はじまる which is why the particle は is used rather than を. To use the word "start" with an object (i.e. transitive), the verb changes. Pairs of transitive and intransitive verbs are fairly regular. For example:
The movie starts: えいがははじまる I start the movie: えいがをはじめる
This page has good info: https://en.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/Japanese/Grammar/Transitivity
That's a big problem sometimes, most of the time the informal language teachers simplify learning (I think it's Duo's way of teaching). Somehow here by defining what an transitive or intransitive verb is yet unnecessary but that could change later on learning depending on how much do you want to explore...
I particularly find all those topics very interesting for studying by oneself but I do not think it's stricktly necessary to get too much info about that when learning new languages (amateur levels). Since babies don't know the grammar of a language since they learn it, but if you want to go deeper on the subject it might be necessary at some point.
Sorry If I have mistakes in my writing, I'm not a native english speaker but feel free to correct me if needed please. ヾ(｡>﹏<｡)ﾉﾞ✧*。
Nitpicking maybe, but rather than saying that the verb changes, I'd say that the transitive/intransitive pairs are separate verbs with the same stem. There are combinations other than aru/eru, e.g., tooru/toosu, fueru/fuyasu. The pairs are in different categories (conjugations).
Yes it does: “yet” indicates that the situation “the movie hasn’t started” has not changed when it could have. Or how would you define “yet”? To me, both it and “still” basically mean the same thing: “situation x could have changed/action x could have happened, but so far it has not”. Only ”yet” tends to combine with negatives and questions.
So do these two sentences have a different meaning for you:
- The movie hasn’t started yet.
- The movie still hasn’t started.
To me they seem to have the exact same meaning, only 2. sounds slightly more annoyed. (That being said, of course 2. should be an accepted translation).
No, this is not a progressive. ～ている means progressive only when the verb represents an action (usually transitive). It means "have the state of" when it follows a "state" verb (usually an intransitive verb).
映画を始めています。 I am starting the movie.
映画が始まっています。 The movie has begun (or literally having a started state).
My English is poor though so I cannot tell if "is not starting yet" is commonly used. (I use "has not started yet" all the times.)
But if it is "The movie is starting," the we cannot translate to 映画が始まっています. The correct Japanese translation is 映画が始まろうとしています. So definitely ～ています does not mean "in the progress of state transition," but means "the state is in effect."
Since I believe that imposing English categories on the Japanese is an obstacle to understanding Japanese grammar, I quibble saying "means progressive." The "~te iru" ending is a stative ending that consistently "means" in Japanese that the action or state of being expressed in the verb is current. Depending on the concept expressed in the verb, the current action or state can be on-going or current in the sense that nothing significant has happened subsequent to the action. Thus "kyakusan ga kite iru" is a stative which can correspond either to "a guest is coming" (English progressive) or "a guest has come" (English present perfect). The Japanese is stative in either case. Progressive and present perfect are English tenses which do not exist in Japanese. The "progressive" interpretation suits action verbs, such as verbs of motion, but is harder to imagine with verbs expressing states. The point is that it is the semantic content of the verb rather than the "~te iru" ending that produces the "progressive" translation.
By the way, since there is a lot of speaking about transitive verbs, here is a small tip:
a transitive verb is a verb that needs a complement in order to get done.
Verbs can transform into transitive. For example:
To run is intransitive (you don't need another object for running isn't it?)
To think is intransitive, but could turn into transitive if you add a complement (like if you're only thinking it is intransitive, but if you're thinking in something then it goes transitive)
To write is transitive, in order to write you need pen, ideas, paper, a poem, etc.
Transitive means that the verb has an object, i.e., that ít directly acts on someone or something. If you "start the movie" the movie receives the action and "start" is transitive. If "the movie starts" there is no object receiving the action and "start" is intransitive. There are a number of verbs in English that can be transitive or intransitive, e.g., start, stop, spread, increase, decrease, etc. Japanese tends to have separate verbs for transitive and intransitive senses of the concepts involved, e.g., hajimaru/hajimeru, yamu/yameru, hirogaru/hirogeru, fueru/fuyasu, heru/herasu, etc.